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VOLUME 2 



OCTOBER 1981 



uper 
sonic 



[ 



Apple 
Joins 
he Navy 




John Lilly and His 
Conversations with Dolphins 





OCTOBER 1981 
Chairman 
Publisher 
Editor 

Managing Editor 
Art Director 
General Manager 
Editorial Associate 
Assistant Editor 
Product News and 
Copy Editor 
Contributing Editors 
Assembly Language 
Pascal 
Business 
Apple CP/M 
Apple III 
Hardware 
Investing 
Guest Reviewer 
Special Projects 

Ad Coordinator 
Circulation 



Systems 
Advertising Sales 
213-980-5074 



John Haller 
Al Tommervik 
Margot Comstock 

Tommervik 
Craig Stinson 
Kurt A. Wahlner 
Mary Sue Rennells 
Jean Varven 
Melissa Milich 

Carol James 

Roger Wagner 
Jim Merritt 
Peter Olivieri 
Greg Tibbetts 
Taylor Pohlman 
Jeffrey Mazur 
Kenneth Landis 
John Haller 
Donna Siebert 
Greg Voss 
David Hunter 
Kimberly Curling 
Ron Rennells 
Robert Mann 
William V. R. Smith 
Al Tommervik 



( O 



n i t n 



Exec Softsel: Software Distribution Leader 
AL TOMMERVIK 



Apple Diagnoses Shatter Traditional IQ Testing 
GREG VOSS 



Talking with Dolphins: John Lilly and His Apples 

MELISSA MILICH 42 



The GameMaster: A House of Games by Modem 
MARGOT COMSTOCK TOMMERVIK 



Cover design by Kurt Wahlner; cover photo of Joe 
and Rosalie by Maggie McGurk. 

Composition by Photographies, Hollywood, Cali- 
fornia. Printing by Volkmuth Printers, Saint Cloud, 
Minnesota. 

Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Com- 
puter Inc., Cupertino, California. 

UCSD Pascal is a trademark of the University of 
California at San Diego. 

VisiCalc is a trademark of Personal Software, 
Sunnyvale, California. 

SoftCard is a trademark of Microsoft, Bellevue, 
Washington. 

Softalk. Volume 2, Number 2. Copyright 1 1981 by 
Softalk Publishing Inc. All rights reserved. ISSN:0274- 
9629. Softalk is published monthly by Softalk Publishing 
Inc., 11021 Magnolia Boulevard, North Hollywood, CA 
91601. Telephone, (213) 980-5074. Second-class postage 
paid at North Hollywood, CA, and additional mailing of- 
fices. 

Postmaster: Send address changes to Softalk, 11021 
Magnolia Boulevard, North Hollywood, CA 91601. 

Subscriptions: Complimentary to all owners of Apple 
computers in the USA. If you own an Apple but you're not 
receiving Softalk, send your name, address, and Apple 
serial number with a request for subscription to Softalk 
Circulation, 11021 Magnolia Boulevard, North Holly- 
wood, CA 91601. Softalk is totally independent of Apple 
Computer Inc.; sending your warranty card to Apple 
Computer will not inform Softalk of your existence. 

Non- Apple-owner subscriptions for one year: $12. For 
the convenience of businesses and schools in which sev- 
eral staff members share an Apple and would like indi- 
vidual copies of Softalk, multiple subscriptions to the 
same address are available at lower rates: two through 
five, $9 each; more than five, $7 each. 

Back Issues: $2 through February 1981; $2.50 thereaf- 
ter. November and December 1980 and January 1981 is- 
sues are sold out. March 1981 issue is in short supply. Sof- 
talk will send you a back issue of your choice free (avail- 
able issues only) for the name, address, and serial num- 
ber of each Apple owner you can find who isn't already 
receiving Softalk. 

Problems? If you haven't received your Softalk by the 
tenth of the month, or if you have other problems with 
your subscription, Ron Rennells or Kimberly Curling can 
help. Call (213) 980-5099. 

Moving? Send new address and old to Softalk Circula- 
tion, 11021 Magnolia Boulevard, North Hollywood, Cali- 
fornia 91601; telephone, (213) 980-5099. 

Manuscripts: All Softalk articles are written on as- 
signment. If you are a writer and would like to write for 
Softalk, send statement of your association with Apples 
and sample of your writing to the editor. Queries are al- 
so welcome; state the subject you have in mind and the 
theme of the potential story, and briefly outline the direc- 
tion the article would take. Include a stamped, self-ad- 
dressed envelope, and keep a copy of whatever you send. 
Questions about rates for editorial matter will be an- 
swered only by telephone. 

ADVERTISERS INDEX 

Advanced Business Technology 109 

Apple Computer 45 

Applied Analytics 79 

Aurora Systems 54 

Avant-Garde 97, 143 

Bite-soft 8* 

The Book 1982 29 

Bourbon Street 80 

Broderbund 37 

BudgeCo 146 

California Pacific Cover 2 

Cavalier 148 

CE Software 69 

C&H 141 

Compuiek 9 

Computer Solutions 94 

Computer Station 62, 89, 91, 93 



The Solar System by Apple: Solar Home Design 

CRAIG STINSON 98 

An Apple Joins the Navy: Supersonic Flight Simulator 
JIM SALMONS 




EEATIIEES 



Basic Utilities THERON FULLER 95 

Lower-Case Adapters: An Overview JEFFREY MAZUR 123 

A Controller Even You Can Make SILAS WARNER 130 

DEPABTMEN T S 

Puns 'n' Applanagrams 

Contest Winners 

Open Discussion 

The Pascal Path: 

Jim Merritt 

SoftCard Symposium: 

Greg Tibbetts 

Tradetalk 

Ventures with VisiCalc 

Marketalk: Reviews 

Assembly Lines: 

Roger Wagner 



2 
2 
8 

15 

23 
39 
50 
55 

66 



Newspeak 

Marketalk: News 

The Basic Solution: 

William V. R. Smith 
Mind Your Business: 

Peter Olivieri 

The Third Basic: 

Taylor Pohlman . . . 
Beginners' Corner: 

Craig Stinson 

Softalk Presents 

the Bestsellers 



79 
89 

104 

107 

1 1 1 

136 

145 



E B E V I L W S 



Nipping November . . . The Boy an Apple Taught To Care: 
the Apple in Psychotherapy . . . Exec Broderbund . . ■ The 
Multifarious Mind of Steve Beck . . . More on Time . . . 
Debut: All About Applesoft . . . Smokey The Bear's 
Right-Hand Apple . . . and more. 



Context 127 

Continental Software 57 

Dakin5 49 

Data Transforms 8, 101 

Datamost 92 

Edu-Ware 1 

Energy Games 33 

First Software 53 

FSI 124 

Galfo Systems 122 

Highlands Computer Services 117 

High Technology 44 

Horizon Simulations 47 

Howard Software 67 

Human Systems Dynamics 128 

IDSI 139 

Insoft 3 

Intelligent Computer Systems 20 

Interactive Microware 18 

Interlude 126 

LJK Enterprises 125 

L & S Computerware 145 

Masterworks 59 

Math City 121 

McCreary Software 39 

Micro Focus 24 

Micro Lab 21, 56, 64 

Microsoft 51, 61 

Mountain Distributor 104 

Muse Software 19, 40, 68, 115 

Nikrom I 5 

Omega 96, 114 

On-Line Systems 28, 32, 48, 103, 105, 

113, 116, 129, Cover 4 



Orange Micro 

Pegasys 

Penguin (formerly Micro Co-op) . 

Phoenix 

Program Store 

Prometheus 

Rainbow Computing 

RH Electronics 

Riverbank Software 

Science Research Associates 

Sentient Software 

Sierra Software 

Sirius Software 

Softalk 

Softape 

Softdisk 

Softhouse 

Softpak 

Software Publishing Corporation . 

Software Store 

Software Technology 

Southwestern Data Systems 

Spectrum Software 

Stellatlon Two 

Stoneware 

Strategic Simulations 

SubLogic 

Synergistic Software 

Systems Design Lab 

Systems Plus 

Thunderware 

Vital Information 

Westside 

Yucaipa Software 



27 

108 

10 

25, 60 

90 

63 

.52 

. . . . . . w. Uo 

137 

41 

38 

85, 144 

71-78 

6, 88, 100 

70 

65 

12 

14 

30 

58 

22, 112 

17, 133 

110 

131 

106 

147, Cover 3 

11 

35, 120 

26 

13 

135 

81 

102 

50 




OCTOBER 1981 



Two things are special about the 
crossword puzzle that constitutes this 
month's contest. First, almost all the an- 
swers have some connection to compu- 
ters in general and Apples in particular. 
Second, the puzzle was devised using an 
Apple and Crossword Magic, a cross- 
word-making utility for the Apple from 
L&S Computerware. 

Definitions are tricky. They nearly al- 
ways contain a direct definition, but it 
may take some thinking to know which 
part of the clue is that definition. Each 
clue has at least one other relationship to 
the answer. It may contain an anagram 
of the answer, or a charade of it ; or the 
answer may be hidden forward or back- 
ward. Punctuation and straightforward 
clue meanings may be deliberately mis- 
leading. 

First prize is $100 worth of merchan- 
dise at your local computer store. Ties 
will be settled by Apple's random num- 
ber generator. 

When you've finished the puzzle, send 
a copy of the finished work along with the 
entry coupon to Softalk. Entries must 
reach Softalk by November 15, 1981. 

Mail entry blank with your finished puz- 
zle to Softalk Crossword, 11021 Magnolia 
Boulevard, North Hollywood, CA 91601. 



13 



Name: 



Address: 

City/state/zip: 

Dealer's name: 

Prize you'd like: 

Your autograph: 

Across Clues 
2. Giving fruit returned 
6. Terrapin gets no A's when machine 

copy is hard 
9. Bachelor of Arts, as it is 

10. Plus genetic part backward 

11. Less than more back only to read 

12. Members of the AFL gather to feast 
on many meats 



Screwball pitch, no tea, with part of 
tollhouse cooky 

"Hello, Adeline," he said. "Fill the 
gun." 

Singular punishment too old for Wall 
Street 

Gramps role is no good on TV fillers 
Town and village initially went for 
home entertainment 
Half a parsec and part of the terrain 
later, Stepan remained undercover 
A short life is badly spent putting 
away papers 

The inventory is still too much 
confused 

"Boo," the ghost said as he sloshed 
away in his galoshes 
Don't show what you're doing to the 
union. See, I owe you one 
A French cat loves to converse, 
shortly 

A sixties-style runner, he used the 
telephone connection to call in a long 
dash 

Michener's book often tells about a 
fountainhead 

Tuesday found Polly in rage about 
acting 
Down Clues 

1. Mending sessions stop early when 
headless 

3. Al's cap blazed in the sun, in any 
dialect 

A wily addict sat, locked in 
daydreams 

Dance, and make memories to last 
forever 

Trading you for a churn occurs on a 
cattle farm 

You lose your mind if it's marred 
enough 

Recut mops don't last as long as 
microprocessors 

An enigma, snoring, makes baby 
pule 

Swerving in circles can cause spinal 
parts to hurt 

Pale Patsy insisted upon the best 
computer in school 



15. 

17. 

20. 
23. 

24. 

26. 

28. 

32. 

33. 

35. 

37. 



39 



40 



4. 



5. 



13 



14 



16 



18 



19. Arco deplores symbolic substitution 

21. Seventeen true vaned weathercocks 
went on an escapade 

22. An actress plants bulbs under the 
glow of Big Berthas 

24. After the rescue, he received a huge 
vase of daisies 

25. People who jog are partially nurds 
returning 

26. Put up the money or they can fine you 

27. Confused, Roy uses everything he 
owns to think up an alibi 

29. Endless greetings confuse whole 
numbers of people 

30. "Come and get it!" the cook shouted 
when our order was ready 

31. Each morning, Mike rose early to 
work on his Apple and Atari 

34. Swirling ice overcame the soprano as 

the Titanic went down 
36. The new stove can do everything 

from melting butter to baking pottery 
38. A sage trainer teaches her dog to 

fetch 



Faces. William J. Tuttle of Decatur, 
Georgia, was the winner randomly 
chosen among thirty correct entries in 
the Softalk Faces Contest. Identifying the 
number two face was most contestants' 
downfall. Not very many recognized the 
very talented hi-res pioneer Bob Bishop. 
Tuttle chose two games from Strategic 
Simulations, Warp Factor and Shattered 
Alliance, as his prize. He'll pick up the 
games at the Atlanta Computer Mart. 

Several of the faces belonged to peo- 
ple with more than one affiliation; in 
these cases, any one of the applicable af- 
filiations was considered correct. Al- 
though some of the affiliations are not 
current in the personal — or personnel — 
sense, the fact that an individual's soft- 
ware, for example, is being sold by a 
company is considered an affiliation. 

The correct answers to Softalk Faces 
were: 

1. John Couch, Apple Computer Inc. 

2. Bob Bishop, Datasoft (Apple 
Computer Inc., Softape) 

3. Bill Budge, BudgeCo (California 
Pacific, Apple Computer Inc.) 
Todd Rundgren, Utopia or Apple 
Computer Inc. /Special Delivery 
Software, Bearsville Records 
Jean Richardson, Apple Computer 
Inc. 

Bill Depew, Artsci or Softape 
Roberta Williams, On-Line Systems 
David Mullich, Edu-Ware Services 
Dick Cavett, PBS Television or Apple 
Computer Inc. or Daphne 
10. Neil Konzen, Microsoft (Synergistic 
Software) 

The name of Tom Larus, of Powha- 
tan, Virginia, was drawn from among all 
entries to the contest with at least one 
correct answer to take second prize. 
Larus will collect $30 toward a double 
boot device or toward a Thunderclock 
from Computer Techniques near his 
home. 31 



4. 




In Language 
lies The Future. 




4 i f S Q E T A L K OCTOBER 1961 




Avis has made a pretty good thing out of being number two. 
Their "We try harder" campaign vaulted them into a 
prominence that's found them pressing Hertz all the way in the 
rental car field. 

Most recently a new number two was crowned in thorough- 
bred saddle racing when John Henry won a cool six hundred 
thousand dollars in the Arlington Million turf race in Chicago 
to become the second richest racehorse in history. 

While it can be presumed that the horse that won tried 
harder, there's something else notable about this particular 
runner-up. He was once sold as a claimer for a mere eleven 
hundred dollars. 

For those of you who are not track habitues, a claimer is a 
horse entered into a race where anyone can buy the horse for a 
stated price before the race begins. Some pretty fair horses 
can be bought as claimers, with prices now ranging as high as 
eighty thousand dollars. 

For all of that, there's a clear understanding around the 
track that any horse running in a claiming race probably has 
no chance of becoming a big-time winner. Further, any horse 
running in a claiming race for eleven hundred dollars prob- 
ably is unfit for heavy duty plow pulling, let alone profitable 
racing. 

So the story of John Henry is truly Merriwellian in propor- 
tion. 



Second Place Isn't Secondary— When #1 Is Apple Itself. 

What all this has to do with personal computing revolves 
around speculation as to which is the number two company in 
the Apple community — second obviously to Apple itself. 

Immediately coming to mind are some software pub- 
lishers of note — Personal Software, Microsoft, Sirius Soft- 
ware, and On-Line Systems. They probably line up in that ap- 
proximate order in dollar volume of sales, although a different 
order would be appropriate if you consider unit sales. 

Some of the more aware pundits would nominate a high- 
ticket hardware company for number two honors. In that cat- 
egory could be Corvus, which just announced a public stock of- 
fering, Hayes Microcomputing, Mountain Computer, IDS, and 
the new contender — Epson. 

Real industry insiders would probably tag one of the distri- 
butors — either Micro Distributing, High Technology, or Sig- 
ma — as the probable number two. 

Because these companies are not public, and therefore 
don't make public disclosure of their results, you could back al- 
most any of the mentioned companies as the Avis of the Apple 
world and defend your choice against all comers. 

Influential Dark Horse. But there's another name that 
needs inclusion in the list of contenders. It's a company with a 
history that combines the philosophy of Avis with the Frank 
Merriwell aspects of John Henry. 



OCTOBER 1981 



Arguably, it can be contended that this company has been 
the single most important factor in the maturation of the Ap- 
ple software market in the past year. Undeniably, it's a com- 
pany that either now is or very soon will be Avis to Apple's 
Hertz. 

Yet most consumers will never have heard of, or have only 
a vague knowledge of, the company that Bob Leff and Dave 
Wagman have wrought. 

It's called Softsel, and, although you may not have heard of 
them, the odds dictate that you have at least one software 
package that passed through their hands. If you're a prolific 
purchaser of software, you may have dozens. 

What Softsel is technically is a distributor; and what Soft- 
sel distributes technically is software. But to leave the subject 
at that point is roughly akin to calling Bruce Springsteen a 
musician or Fernando Valenzuela a baseball player — you lose 
all the flavor and meaning by resorting to common labels. 

Understanding the significance of what Softsel has become 
entails understanding where it began. 

It Started with Wampum. A programming whiz in southern 
California became enamored of the adventures of Scott 
Adams. In the spring of 1980 he ventured north to the Computer 
Faire in San Francisco where he contacted Adams and struck 
a deal for the distribution rights to Adventure International 
product in southern California. 



But the programming bug was stronger than the urge to 
sell, so he began looking about for someone on whom to unload 
this fledgling venture. 

Economic historians may one day record the ensuing trans- 
action as the biggest heist since the Dutch bought Manhattan 
for twenty-four dollars in junk jewelry — unless, of course, 
they're revisionist historians who have hauled out their Apples 
to determine the present value of that long-ago twenty-four 
dollars and announced that if the tribe had only salted away 
their gains in Chase Manhattan at the prevailing interest rates 
they'd all be rich as Croesus today. 

What the programmer offered Bob Leff was about a 35 per- 
cent discount on all the liquid assets of his business. Those 
assets were in the form of accounts receivable and inventory, 
so how could Leff go wrong? For a price that a couple of years 
earlier would have bought John Henry and dinner for four with 
a good bottle of wine, Leff became the southern California dis- 
tributor for Adventure International. 

Just as the Dutch bought potential on that long-ago day — 
after all, there wasn't yet so much as a sign of concrete — so 
Leff found that cashing out his investment was going to take 
more work than he thought. The breakdown on his assets were 
negligible receivables and plenty of inventory. 

On-the-Job Learning. So he began spending his Saturdays 
making the rounds of southern California computer stores; he 
became the source of some amusement when the folks at the 
original Computer Store in Santa Monica discovered that he 
didn't even know where the power-switch was on the Apple. 

This is not to indicate that Leff was a computer ignoramus. 
Au contraire! It was, in fact, Leff's intimate knowledge of 
computers that led him to be perceived as a buyer and led him 
to become the buyer in the first place. 

His academic credentials include the master of computer 
science degree from the State University of New York in 
Albany, and his work experience includes various program- 
ming and software development management positions. 

None of his experience related to the then blossoming 
personal computer industry, but neither was he a technolo- 
gical nincompoop dazzled by the thought of new technology 
and looking for a business entree. 

While his original thought was merely to recoup his invest- 
ment, his early efforts resulted in plus results. It became 
apparent to him that there was even more here than met the 
eye, but he wasn't able to exploit the opportunity properly on a 
part-time basis. 

What Leff saw was a vacuum left by the distributors then in 
the marketplace. They were regional, hardware-oriented 
suppliers. Such companies as High Technology, Byte, Micro 
Distributing, and Sigma specialized in hardware, probably 
because peripherals were higher ticket items and because the 
software industry was still in its infancy. The hardware nature 
of their business, entailing expensive shipping costs for long 
distances and difficulty in solving servicing problems at those 
distances, somewhat dictated the regional nature of the 
companies. 

Opportunity Arrived with Battering Ram — and Wagman. 
For whatever reason, however, none of them were aggres- 
sively supporting your local retailer with a full line of current 
software products. 

Leff perceived opportunity, not just gently tapping at his 
door, but beating upon it and begging to be recognized. So he 
looked around for someone with similar vision. 

He began talking up what he was doing at Transaction 
Technology, the CitiBank subsidiary for which he worked in 
Santa Monica, California. The seed appeared not to take root 
until a conversation with a co-worker in New York revealed 
that the co-worker had been regaled about Leff's endeavors by 
Dave Wagman, another TTI manager. 

Leff had found his man with good vision, and he honed in 
unerringly. He took Wagman on one of his Saturday forays to 
retail stores and it was a banner day. They wrote more than 
five thousand dollars in business in Orange County. By this 



S O E T A I ¥ 



OCTOBER 1981 



time, Leff, clearly a fast learner, knew where the power-switch 
on the Apple was located. 

Leff and Wagman became a team, and Robwin was its 
name. Robwin was a default choice, a preexisting entity that 
had served Leff in previous independent consulting activities. 

By Any Other Name It Smelled as Sweet. Curiously, al- 
though all the other distributors were regional in their nature, 
it never occurred to the pair that Softsel would do other than 
sell nationally. They took turns at sweeping into different 
metropolitan areas on short visits. 

The message they carried was an uncommonly simple one, 
considering the response they got: "We care about your prob- 
lems, and we'll work to help you solve them. We care about 
software, and we'll work to carry the best. We know you need 
information, and we'll work to bring you the right kind." 

If that seems like nothing more than just common business 
sense, so be it. But to many retailers, Softsel represented the 
first voice of reason willing to establish a two-way dialogue. 

Softsel didn't have a whole lot of product to purvey in the 
beginning. Other than Adventure International, early pro- 
ducers on board were VersaWriter, On-Line Systems, and 
Synergistic. 

Even with that thin product line, Leff and Wagman began 
making a dent in the marketplace with their business prac- 
tices. 

First, they kept all the products they listed in stock. That 
meant they had the expense of inventorying them, an expense 
many other distributors were loathe to incur for small-ticket 
software items. But having the product in stock enabled them 
to fulfill point two of the plan : ship full orders as rapidly as pos- 
sible. 

All Work and No Play Fills Orders the Same Day. Leff 
takes great pride in Softsel's hard-earned reputation for 
prompt shipping. "We almost always turn orders around in 
half a day. While we were moving the warehouse in August, 
our order fulfillment time went out to two-and-a-half days, and 



we were getting all kinds of calls asking what was happen- 
ing." 

It's a mark of Softsel's dedication to service that customers 
would complain about sixty-hour turnaround at a time when 
most of the industry still thinks filling an order anytime within 
a week represents a real achievement. 

That dedication has its price, and, for Leff and Wagman, 
it's been long, long hours filling orders at the end of full days of 
soliciting the same. 

Toward the end of summer 1980, Leff went half-time at Soft- 
sel. Wagman went full-time October 1, and Leff joined him full- 
time early in November. They used part-time shipping help in 
the evening to fill orders. 

Even to this day, when the Softalk Inc. phones ring after 
midnight, knowing staffers will wager that it's either Leff or 
Wagman calling to take a break. More often than not, it is, in- 
deed, one of the two, although these days they're taking breaks 
from responsibilites other than shipping. 

The growth rate at Softsel defies statistical analysis. They 
moved out of Leff's house into 2,500 square feet of space in De- 
cember 1980. At the time, they were giving some thought to 
throwing up a wall and attempting to sublease a portion of the 
space to amortize what seemed like extraordinary expenses 
for space way beyond their immediate requirements. 

By August, they were forced to move into 12,000 square feet 
of space evenly divided between warehousing and offices. That 
space looks adequate for some time until you consider other 
kinds of growth. 

Softsel didn't have a full-time employee, other than the 
partners, until January of this year. By the time of their Au- 
gust move, they had more than fifteen employees and were 
holding off hiring more until they could get additional space so 
the new people could work efficiently. 

By the end of September the staff was nearing thirty. 

The growth in product lines has kept pace with other 
growth. From the original four lines, Softsel has become 

GOTO 47 



Everyone's Guide to 
Assembly Language 



m 



x 




Everybody's lining up to get their bound 
copy of the first year of Roger Wagner's 
Assembly Lines column. In addition to reprints of 
the first twelve columns, the book will contain 
new material to get your favorite 
programmer on the assembly line. 

Demand for this popular series indicates 
that the first printing may be sold out. Bound in 
a functional spiral binding, this book will be a 
valuable reference guide to assembly language 
programmers. 

To ensure delivery of your copy in time for 
Christmas, send $19.95, plus $1.50 for postage 
and handling to Softalk Book, 1 1021 Magnolia 
Boulevard, North Hollywood, California 91601. 





Our of the ashes of a civilization gone mad . . . 
will rise the greatest Empire the galaxy has ever known. 

Soon conquering your local computer store 

Edu-Ware Services, Inc. 22222 Sherman Way Suite 102 Canoga Park.CA 91303 (213) 346-6783 



8 



OCTOBER 1981 



O P E tl 
D I S ( U 



Compiler Input 

I have used the Hayden Compiler for 
about a week and can already make 
some comments. On the plus side: (1) 
beautifully easy to use; (2) compiles 
fast; (3) takes remarkably little mem- 
ory. On the minus side: (1) They adver- 
tise two to twelve times improvement in 
execution speed. I always get much clos- 
er to two. The greatest improvement in 
execution speed I have ever gotten is four 
times. The average is about two times 
and frequently as little as one and a half 
times. (2) There are a few rather unpre- 
dictable bugs (although fewer than I ex- 
pect on a new product such as this). 

The programs I tested on are long 
(one minute to one hour in Applesoft Ba- 
sic) with lots of floating point calcula- 
tion. 

Finally, is the Roger Wagner of SDS 
the same as the one who writes Assem- 
bly Lines? 

Tom Boehme, University of California, 
Santa Barbara, CA 

Yes, he is. 




s s i o n 



Room for Retailers on Beautiful Wabash 

Like so many of your readers, I also thor- 
oughly enjoy your magazine and look for- 
ward to receiving it out here in the hinter- 
lands of east central Indiana. 

If there ever was a spot in this coun- 
try that Apple forgot, it must certainly be 
this section of Indiana. An article in the 
Wall Street Journal last year reported 
that most of the Apple Computer stock is- 
sued was to be used to improve their dis- 
tribution and sales organization. Only a 
month ago, a new franchise dealer in In- 
dianapolis, 60 miles from my home, re- 
ported that he was still having problems 
receiving Apple hardware from his dis- 
tributor and that stock orders were tak- 
ing up to three weeks to receive from 175 
miles away. 

A writer in your August issue re- 
ported that he has six Apple dealers with- 
in a thirty-minute drive of his home in 
Danville, California. Send a few of them 
out our way, along with a distributor who 
is willing to invest a few bucks in some in- 
ventory. Any Apple computers that have 
been sold in east central Indiana have 
been doggedly sought out through the 
sheer determination of their owners and 
certainly not through any sales effort on 
the part of any distribution system. 

My home is midway between Ander- 
son and Muncie, two cities of approxi- 
mately 80,000 population, neither of 
which has an Apple dealer. But Muncie 
has three Radio Shack stores, each of 
which claims to be doing a respectable 
job of selling their TRS-80 models. 

This, then, is an appeal to any for- 
ward-thinking investor to come to our 
area and open an Apple dealership. I 
would welcome the opportunity to fur- 
nish the names of local realtors and fi- 
nancial experts to assist you in locating 
in our area. 

Larry Macy, Daleville, IN 
CP/M for Apple III 

Kindly advise availability of Softcard for 
Apple III 

Jess Stimpson Epps, Jr., Epps 
Architects, Dallas, TX 

Expected by the end of the year. 

3D0G Night for Disk Owners Only 

I am a thirteen-year-old Basic/machine 
language programmer and I caught a 
mistake in the Beginners' Corner as I 
was going through the August issue. 

Toward the middle of the article, Mr. 
Stinson does some fooling around with 
the Monitor. He says to turn on your Ap- 
ple and get into the Monitor. Then after 



doing some Monitor commands, he says 
to enter "3D0G." There is one big prob- 
lem with that: 3D0 is a DOS location and 
only works when DOS is installed in 
memory. 

Matt Machlis, Temple City, CA 

Birthday Greetings — and Constructive 
Criticism 

I just wanted to drop you a note to say 
how much I appreciate receiving Sof- 
talk. Of all the Apple-related publica- 
tions you seem to have a different point of 
view. You seem to be aware that the 
world of microcomputers is more than 
just hardware and software. Besides the 
technology, one must consider the people 
behind it all. I applaud your recognition 
of that. 

We all have technical problems. 
Here's mine: while working my way 
through Roger Wagner's Assembly Lines 
article in the August issue, I got stuck on 
his first DOS modification. When I fol- 
lowed the instructions and entered 
10AFL completely different results ap- 
peared. By going through each track and 
sector starting at track 0, sector 0 and 
examining location 10AF, I found the 
data required was in track 2, sector 2. 
The article implied track 1, sector D. 
With this change everything works fine. 

I was wondering if anyone knows 
where all these "goodies" in DOS are lo- 
cated. A carefully compiled list could go 
a long way toward customizing DOS. 

While on the subject of DOS, what is 
the difference between a DOS slave and a 
DOS master diskette? I know that a 
master can be booted on any memory 
size Apple, but is there any other 
change? 

Curtis N. Browne, Dresher, PA 

This letter serves several purposes. The 
first is a note of thanks. Thank you for 
this wonderful magazine. When I re- 
ceived my first issue of Softalk 
I thought it was a joke. How good could a 
free magazine be? How I've changed my 
mind! It seems that every issue is better 
than the last. This magazine is my favor- 
ite computing magazine for several 
reasons : 

Not having to pay for it, I feel less in- 
timidated by it. I feel more like I am talk- 
ing with a friend. It is the one computing 
magazine I will read from cover to cover 
(even ads!). 

The topics covered are various and 
worthwhile. I bought a book on assembly 
language programming for the 6502 ; but 
it is not nearly as helpful as Assembly 
Lines. The stories are very good but 
never too professional. They come off 
more like conversations than reports. 
They are low-key — a nice change these 
days. 

The reviews are positive. Reviewers 
for Softalk don't seem to go out to cut 
down programs, but to assess them. It is 
great that everything is given a chance. 

It is Apple oriented. I believe the Ap- 



OCTOBER 1981 



\OETAI V |p 



9 



pie is in a class by itself, with its acces- 
sible Monitor, graphics, sound, and ex- 
pansion capabilities seldom found on 
other machines. It is good to know it is 
appreciated ! 

Softalk is a super effort— keep up the 
good work! 

My last reason for writing is to high- 
light an error in the July 1981 issue. Rog- 
er Wagner tells us in that issue's Assem- 
bly Lines that the disk volume message 
of DOS 3.3 is stored on track 1, sector 13. 
As I am sure you have already discov- 
ered, it is not there ! Using a track/sec- 
tor display program I wrote, I found that 
the disk volume message is actually 
stored on track 2, sector 2. 
Eric Celeste, North Hollywood, CA 

Apple Deco 




As a resident of the Wenatchee Valley, 
commonly referred to as the "Apple 
Capital of the World," it's only logical 
that I would become another proud own- 
er of an Apple computer. I am also an 
antique buff, camera nut, and a collector 
of whatever. Therefore, I wish to share 
what I believe is an original decorating 
idea for Apple owners. 

My Apple II resides in an oak rolltop 
desk and my disk library in an oak book 
rack. This is interspersed with various 
antique magic lanterns and slides. I am 
now in the process of decorating my Ap- 
ple den with antique apple box labels. 
These labels were discontinued in the 
early fifties when the packers went to 
cardboard boxes. They have become 
scarce, but I stumbled Upon a fairly good 
supply. The label names are quite in- 
triguing and the colorful scenes are very 
interesting. They are approximately 8" 
by 10", suitable for framing or papering a 
wall. I think they are quite appropriate to 
grace the walls of every Apple owner's 
office or den. 

Since your excellent magazine is com- 
plimentary, I am enclosing two compli- 
mentary labels for your office (see illus- 
tration). I really like the "Apple Capi- 
tal" label, especially since it is dated 
1933. 

If anyone is interested, I purchased 
my labels from His 'n Herz, 211 South 
Houston, East Wenatchee, WA 98801. 
They have more than fifty different kinds 



of apple labels available. The prices for 
most are $5, however some rare ones go 
as high as $100 each. 

I think this blending of apples from 
the past and Apples of the future is in- 
deed a unique decor and conversation 
piece. 

Robert L. Skell, East Wenatchee, WA 

Thank you! 

A Fruitful Addiction 

We would like to thank you for your as- 
sistance. Herb called you last Thursday 
because we hadn't received the Master- 
type program we ordered. It arrived yes- 
terday. It really is a great program. I 
think we're addicted already. We sincer- 
ely appreciate the immediate attention 
you gave the matter. 
Herb and Carol Martin, Gretna, LA 

An Apple in Any Language . . . 

I am trying to locate all the Apple 
computer users' groups in foreign coun- 
tries, especially in non- English-speaking 
countries. Do you have a list, or can you 
help me? 

Gregory Enos, Dallas, TX 

Something for Everyone 
I am an employee of the Byte Shop of 
Fort Lauderdale, Florida, and I must say 
that you have one of the best Apple 
magazines going for you. The articles are 
very well done and you usually have very 
accurate information. We sell Byte, 
Creative Computing, Kilobaud Micro- 
computing, Nibble, Call Apple, Interface 
Age, the local Apple users' group news- 
letter, and InfoWorld. Of all these, I feel 
that your magazine is the most informa- 
tive source to keep up with new items. 

Great! Keep it up. 

And another thing. You say that sub- 
scriptions are free to Apple owners. I 
have owned my Apple for two years and I 
have yet to see it mailed to my house. I 
am forced to wait until my boss is fin- 
ished reading the store copy. 

And while I'm at it, I have some mes- 
sages to convey to the software houses. 

1. To Sirius Software. Gorgon and 
Sneakers are good games, but why must 
you go to the disk before each game? 

2. To BudgeCo. Raster Blaster is 
quite a game. Unfortunately, paddle but- 
tons don't work after playing the game a 
few times. It's great for computer stores. 
We get to sell replacements, but why 
don't you have the option of using the 
keyboard like everyone else does? 

3. To On-Line. Adventures #0, #1, #2, 
#3 are fantastic ! Keep up the good work. I 
love the standard format for saving 
games. The vocabulary leaves some- 
thing to be desired. Why don't you have a 
"get everything" command? It would be 
a great improvement (especially when 
things are piled up in a cave and then you 
have to pick them up one by one). 

4. To USA Software. Kram is great, 
but why do you make it so difficult to 



make a turnkey system? Your software 
is already protected with a ROM chip. 
Super Kram takes up too much space in 
memory. 

5. To Broderbund. Don't release 
games on the market and then come out 
with a better version of the same game. 
Wait until the game is perfect first. 

6. To Cavalier Computer. Star Thief 
is the best team game I've seen, but 
again, why must you go to the disk before 
each game? 

To all you game software-makers. 
Stop making the drives do strange things. 
Apple doesn't make the drives as well as 
they used to and after a little use, those 
clacking and crunching noises damage 
the drives. Again, great for our service 
department but not for consumers. 

To all business software creators. 
Don't protect the programs! This may 
sound stupid, but many of our customers 
simply will not put their businesses at the 
mercy of a program that cannot be de- 
pended on. Also, each business has spe- 
cial needs and, if your programs can be 
modified just slightly, a business can 
save the cost of writing a custom pro- 
gram. 

To Apple Computer Inc. Why can't 
you sell the machines with lower case 
and a shift key built in? Our customers 
don't like to be told that they would have 
to make shift-key wire modifications and 
change ROMs and then still have to wor- 
ry about not being compatible with all 
software. 



SPACED 




Come Back to earth long enough to en|oy four fasci- 
nating versions ot SOLITAIRE; the game that space 
travelers play to relax. 

All games are in beautiful Hi-Resolution graphics, 
animated to look like the real thing All games employ 
single key input for fast response and ease of play. 

Relax your mind and your game paddles' 

If you appreciate well written creative software that 
will never lose its place in time, don't miss this one, a 
great investment 1 

48K ROM APPLESOFT 
Boots 3.2 & 3.3 

Price $29.95 

California residents add 6% sales tax 
DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

COMPUTEK 

28278 Enderly Street 
Canyon Country, California 91351 

(805) 252-4244 

•APPLESOFT is a trademark of Apple Computers. Inc 



10 



WUTAI K 



OCTOBER 1981 




by Mark Pelczarski 



Brand nev 
the Apple 




• Picture packing routines reduce screen 




Screen Image from Special Effects 



from penguin* 

jl software 

(Formerly Coop Software! 

makers of the 

"The Complete Graphics System" 
-Hi-Res Drawing, Hi-Res Character 
Generator, Shape Builder, and 3-D 
Graphics. 

Box 432, West Chicago, XL 601 85 
(312)231-0912 

NOW AVAILABLE: 

"The Complete Graphics System-Tablet 
Version" $ j 19 95 

Apple tl is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 



To all companies that sell software 
that requires a chip to be plugged into the 
paddle port or a circuit board that must 
be plugged in as protection. Stop! Or at 
least come up with a standard softlock 
board like that on the Alpha-Micro. 

We like protected software. That way 
we don't have to worry about losing sales 
to pirates. But do it well. Don't make the 
drive go crunch and don't make us have 
to put a zillion new chips in the computer 
to use programs. We still haven't seen a 
disk that couldn't be copied, though some 
have kept us busy for quite a while. 

Keep the software coming. 
Adam Ginsberg, Byte Shop, Fort 
Lauderdale, FL 

We can't mail you a magazine if we 
don't know about you. We aren't affili- 
ated with Apple, so even if you send Ap- 
ple notice, we remain in the dark. If you 
want Softalk, you must send us your 
name, address, and, because we're free 
exclusively to Apple owners, your Apple 
serial number. 

Regarding note to On-Line: You 
didn't try "Take all." In that very cave, 
that's what you needed. "Drop all" works 
to put everything down, too. 

About Broderbund: What a loss to 
have missed out on Alien Rain because of 
the potential of an Alien Typhoon to 
come. We believe Alien Rain is by far the 
superior game. Typhoon is quite a differ- 
ent game to play, best for addicts. 

Softalk gives seven Apple disk drives 
a heavy workout eighteen hours a day or 
more. All games get intensive multihour 
sessions. Other than occasional timing 
adjustments, only two drives have gone 
down — both because some sleepy person 
misconnected them. 

Blasting Budge's Billy with Love 

I've had Raster Blaster for about a 
month and a half now, and there is no 
question that it's the best game I own. 
However, it does have its share of prob- 
lems. 

Despite the fact that it was written by 
one of the most creative programmers in 
this country, most of its quirks seem to 
come under the heading of program- 
ming errors. 

The first of these quirks has to do with 
the surfaces of the objects within the pin- 
ball playfield. Apparently, if the ball hits 
a surface at the right spot, it will pass 
right through it. The ball has passed 
through flippers, walls, and the two green 
bumpers just above the flippers. It has 
even found its way to the launch pad, 
ready to be launched again. Actually, I 
find these actions quite entertaining, but 
whether or not they were supposed to 
happen I don't know. 

The second involves the ball and the 
flippers. All pinball machine fanatics em- 
ploy "catching" the ball between a flip- 
per and its runway. The purpose of this is 
mainly to provide a pause in the game. If 
the ball is caught in this fashion in Raster 



Blaster, it will jump wildly up and down 
on the flipper as if it were in a hurry to 
get back to the game. 

Nevertheless, catching the ball is 
quite possible (and quite easy, I might 
add) . The action of the ball upon the flip- 
per doesn't really bother me that much, 
but its hyperactivity does. Once it got 
caught between the flipper runway and 
the big green bumper just above it. There 
it was, just bouncing back and forth be- 
tween the two. The tiltometer had no ef- 
fect, and I eventually had to reboot the 
disk as I couldn't get it to stop. 

The final and most serious setback of 
Raster Blaster has to do with the Raster 
Blaster claws. The claws catch balls that 
come to them and allow for multiple ball 
play if all three claws are occupied. If 
only one player is playing, they usually 
work just fine. But if all four players are 
present and each of their claws acti- 
vated, trouble begins to set in. Apparent- 
ly, the top claw mysteriously acquires a 
ball without catching one. The ball ap- 
pears as if it is not all there, held in only 
by the tips of the claw. To make matters 
worse, the lower claw becomes just a 
blur on the middle left of the screen. 
Even after the game is over, the screen 
will maintain this appearance unless the 
disk is booted again. The mysterious ball 
and the blurred claw will not affect, or be 
affected by, play whatsoever. 

The top claw may still acquire a ball 
by normal means, however. If this hap- 
pens, then two balls will appear, but only 
one is recognized by the computer. And 
when that top ball is released, the phan- 
tom ball maintains its position, while the 
real ball passes right through it. The bot- 
tom claw, too, can obtain a ball, and by 
this point, usually has one. If it does, it 
will not be too easy to see. It too will re- 
lease the ball, but will remain a blur. 

Aside from these three problems, I 
have had no trouble with Raster Blaster. 
To whatever extent I criticize the game, I 
will not go so far as to say it is a bad 
game. It is, as I have said, the best game 
I own, and it is probably one of the most 
imaginative games ever written. The 
problems I have mentioned are not regu- 
lar incidences and do not hinder the 
game at all. 

It may be that these problems are 
only results of a bad disk. If this is the 
case, then my sincerest apologies. If they 
are not, and there are errors in Raster 
Blaster, then I would be the first to buy a 
revision, or perhaps a new pinball game 
altogether. Maybe that's the coming fad; 
a generation of pinball simulators — each 
with its own unique characteristics. 
Jeff Geraci, Burtons ville, MD 

It's a Date 

Enclosed you'll find a subroutine I wrote. 
It has come in very handy for a number 
of applications. It is a little more com- 
plex to incorporate in a host program 
than others that you have printed, but 
check it out. 



The A2-GE1 
Graphics Editor 

for the 
Apple II 



You bought your Apple for its graphics 
capabilities. Now with the A2-GE1, you can 

use those capabilities to the fullest. 

With Object Editor you can create whatever 
objects you want in the colors of your choice. 
You can also type in whatever 3D text you 
want and in different sizes. And saving an 
object is as easy as naming it. 

Then give the object names to Motion 
Programmer and see how the beautifully laid 
out keyboard controls will let you switch objects 
on or off, animate them, or add upper or lower 
case 2D text mixed right in. It's remarkably 
easy. 

You can also record your entire presentation, 
animation and all, for later use with Motion 
Playback, or just take "computer snapshots" 
of scenes with Slide Show Playback. 

the A2-GE1 Graphics Editor requires the 
A2-3D1 or 3D2 and includes Object Editor, 
Motion Programmer, Motion Playback, and 
Slide Show Playback. It also includes a special 
A2-3D2 interface for BASIC programmers. 



Graphics power 
forthe 

non-programmer! 




See your dealer for a 
demonstration. 



A2-GE1 Graphics Editor 

$34.95 on disk (48K and 
A2-3D1 required) 



LOGIC 

Communications Corp. 
BoxV, Savoy, I L 61 874 
(217) 359-8482 
Telex: 206995 



A2-3D2 Enhancement 

for color and independent 
object manipulation 
$24.95 on disk (48K and 
A2-3D1 required) 



A2-3D1 Graphics Package A2-3D/A Saturn Navigator 

$59.95 on disk (32K required) a 3D adventure program 

$24.95 on disk (48K, A2-3D1 , 
and Applesoft required) 



"Apple" is the registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 



For direct order, include $3 for UPS or $5 for first class mail delivery. 
Illinois residents add 5% sales tax. Visa and Master Card accepted. 



12 



OCTOBER 1981 



HERE IT IS! 



A GOOD Data Management program 
DESIGNED and PRICED for home and small 
business use. It's called FileWhiz . . . and a 
whiz- it is! You don't have to be a genius to 
use it either — our EASY TO FOLLOW 
manual shows how you can. . . 

CREATE FILES according to your 
specifications. Set up a file to keep 
track of taxes, another file to help 
manage expenses, yet another as a 
directory, and so on. 

MANAGE SUBFILES. Just enter the 
attributes of the records you want. 
FileWhiz finds them for you and lets 
you deal with them as a separate file. 
Both file and subfile co-reside in 
memory for quicker processing. 
Your criterion can be numerical com- 
parisons or full, partial, orembedded 
strings. 

PERFORM ARITHMETIC on yourfile 
or subfile entries. 

EDIT YOUR FILES. Add, insert, 
delete or change records. Sort on 
any field. Alter field attributes. The 
COMMAND PROCESSOR makes it 
EASY! 

DISPLAY THE RECORDS YOU 
WANT. The Command Processor 
allows many display options. If your 
system has a printer, the same 
options are available for it. 

ENTER MULTIPLE COMMANDS 
without having to deal with menus. 
Menus are displayed only when you 
request them! 

ACCESS FileWhiz FILES for use in 
your own BASIC programs. Talk 
about VERSATILITY! It takes some 
of the headaches out of custom data 
base application programming. 
(SoftHouse uses FileWhiz files and 
BASIC programs for its order 
processing and accounting needs.) 

FileWhiz works on a 48K Apple II or Apple II 
Plus with Applesoft in ROM and a disk drive 
operating under DOS 3.2 or DOS 3.3. 
(Printers are supported but not required.) 

HAVE A QUESTION? 
GIVE US A CALL! 
Our information line is open 
Mon. — Thurs. 4 to 8 PM CT 
and on Sat. 9 to 1 1 AM CT. 
(507) 285-9121 

SAVE $10 - Order before 
Nov. 1st! 

TO ORDER: Send $39.95 ($49.95 if ordered 
after Nov. 1st) plus $2.00 shipping/handling 
(plus 5% sales tax if you live in Minnesota) to: 

SoftHouse Dept. FWH 
P.O. Box 6383 
Rochester, Mn. 55903 



SoftHouse 



Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer 
© 1981 SoftHouse 



This subroutine was designed to incre- 
ment the date, one day at a time, while 
observing monthly boundaries. It is cog- 
nizant of leap years and will adjust the 
month of February accordingly. 

The host program must be provided 
with the string variable DA$ to operate. 
DA$ must be supplied in the format DD- 
MMM-YY, where DD is the day of the 
month, MMM are the first three letters of 
the month, and YY is the year. 

2 REM * * 

3 REM * DATE ROUTINE * 

4 REM * * 

5 REM * SPEED = 0.12 SEC. * 

6 REM * SIZE = 446 BYTES * 

7 REM * WITHOUT REM STATEMENTS * 

8 REM * 

9 REM *********** C. M. SKLAR *********** 

10 DIM MO$(13),DA%(13) 

11 FOR J = 1 TO 13: READ MO$(J),DA%(J): NEXT J 

12 DATA 

JAN,3 1 ,FEB,28,FEB,29,MAR,31 ,APR,30, 

MAY,31,JUN,30,JUL,31,AUG,31, 

SEP,30,OCT,31,NOV,30,DEC,31 
50 IF VAL (LEFT$(DA$,2)) <10 AND LEFT$(DA$,1)<> 

"0" THEN DAS = "0" + DA$ 
100 FOR J = 1 TO 13: IF MO$(J) <> MID$(DA$,4,3) 

THEN NEXT J 
110 Y% = VAL(RIGHT$(DA$,2)): IF J = 2ANDY%/4 

= INT(Y% / 4) THEN J = 3 
120 H = VAL(LEFT$(DA$,2)): IF H = DA%(J) THEN 

150 

130 H = H + 1: IF H < 10 THEN DAS = "0" + 

STR$(H) +RIGHT$(DA$,7): RETURN 
140 DA$ = STR$(H) + RIGHT$(DA$,7): RETURN 
150 IF J = 1 3 THEN DA$ = "01 —JAN—" + STR$(Y% 

+ 1): RETURN 
160 IF J = 2 THEN J = 3 

170 DA$ = "01-" + MO$(J+l) + "-" + STR$(Y%): 
RETURN 

Line 50 in the subroutine normalizes 
variable DA$ with respect to the day. For 
example, l-JUN-81 becomes 
01-JUN-81. It is therefore important 
that the variable DA$ be assigned its 
value just prior to line 50. This 
normalization is done strictly for proper 
performance of the subroutine, although 
an added plus is that output looks clean- 
er, since all dates are of the same length 
and line up perfectly with each other. 

When placing the subroutine in the 
host program, lines 10 through 12 should 
be placed at the beginning of the pro- 
gram where your initialization is done. 
Otherwise, if it is possible for these state- 
ments to be executed again, you will re- 
ceive an out of data error or a redimmed 
array error. 

After the subroutine has been entered 
into memory and saved, you can add the 
following lines to it and then run it to 
demonstrate the subroutine. The actual 
subroutine begins at line 100. 

20 HOME 

21 'INPUT "ENTER DATE (DD-MMM-YY): " ; DA$ 

60 HOME : PRINT DAS 

61 FOR X = 1 TO 365 

62 GOSUB 100 

63 PRINT DAS 

64 NEXT X 

65 END 

Charles M. Sklar, Phillipsburg, N.J. 



Doctor Opts for Apple 

Ran across an article about a doctor in 
one of my medical magazines and 
thought you would like a gander at it. 

A rather interesting observation ; this 
doctor took a seven-grand word proces- 
sor on trial. Then bought an Apple II and 
promptly returned the word processor! 

"Lack of versatility" was the unsell- 
ing point for the processor. "Apple not 
only is cheaper — it does many more 
things." 

In the December issue there was men- 
tion of a book, The Apple Monitor Peeled , 
by W. M. Dougherty. Who is the publish- 
er or distributor? I would sure like a 
copy. 

Am getting more and more use out 
of my Apple II since attaching an MPI 
88G printer. I looked a long time before 
putting my money on the line. It's the 
only one that will accept single sheets 
from the front and address business 
envelopes too. 

John F. Porter, Tahlequah, OK 

Apple II Monitor Peeled can be pur- 
chased direct from Apple. 

The Pluses of Programming 

In response to Lee Bondle's letter in the 
August issue, I would like to say, yes, 
computers can be treated from a user's 
end only point of view. But to continue the 
analogy that was used, if your user's pro- 
gram crashes or you need to modify it 
you would have to take it to "the shop." 
Stop and think how much you spend in 
simple repair and maintenance of your 
car, just because you cannot do the work 
yourself because of lack of knowledge. 
Knowledge is the key to power and know- 
ing how to program your computer can 
be doubly powerful. 

What I am trying to say is that, while 
the computer can be used like a terminal, 
from a user's point, it is far more to 
everyone's advantage to know the whys 
and hows of your computer. And also less 
expensive in the software area. 

Thanks for listening and keep print- 
ing the best Apple II magazine. 
Bill Rednour, Brooklyn, NY 

Contest Contested 

Although I am not going to try for Dann 
McCreary's Apple, I am enclosing an 
open letter to him, and just to prove I'm 
not pulling his leg, I am enclosing its cod- 
ed and decoded version for your benefit 
only. 

It would appear as though we have 
been working on similar programs, per- 
haps with different approaches and for 
different reasons. 

I am a registered professional engi- 
neer with thirty-one years of industrial 
experience in manufacturing, who de- 
cided to write strictly business pro- 
grams for small business applications, 
using the Apple. 

It didn't take very long to realize that 
all of the months of programming can go 



Accounting Plus II 

It Figures 




Lt figures that the same people who 
brought you Accounting Plus* on the larger 
computer systems wouldn't forget the Apple** 
Accounting Plus II brings to the Apple 
Computer a completely integrated, easy to use 
accounting system. Accounting Plus II doesn't 
require any special hardware, only 48K of 
RAM and two floppy drives or hard disk, 
and you don't have to be a CPA to use it. 
Accounting Plus II organizes and streamlines 
your paper flow and generates checks, 
invoices, statements and purchase orders on 
pre-printed forms. The system supports a solid 
audit trail which your business requires and 
your accountant demands. 



Modules now available: 

• General Ledger 

• Accounts Receivable 

• Accounts Payable 

• Inventory with purchasing 

For additional information call or write 
Systems Plus Inc., 3975 East Bayshore, 
Palo Alto, CA 94303 Phone 415/969/7047 



Seeing is believing. 

Systems Plus 



*TM of Software Dimensions, San Jose, CA 
**TM of Apple Computers, Cupertino, CA 



14 



OCTOBER 1981 



PASCAL 
PROGRAMMING 
TOOL 

(Basic also) 

BY STEVE AXELROD 
FOR THE APPLE II* 

• Modify any data stored 
on disk including disk 
directory 

• Modify object code thus 
saving a re-compile 

• Displays packed array 
structures 

• Searches for data by file 
or disk unit 

• Converts ASCII to HEX 
and HEX to Pascal Integer 
format 

• Automatic increment of 
word display 

• Prints data blocks from 
disk 



.95 



Kl/KJF • \J on diskette 
Requires 64k Apple II* 
with Pascal or language card 



From 



SOFTPAK 
ASSOCIATES 



1 



To order send check or money 
order for purchase price plus one 
dollar for shipping and handling to: 

SOFTPAK 
ASSOCIATES 

626 Venice Blvd. 
Marina Del Rey, CA 90291 
(213) 822-1830 

Allow 2 to 3 weeks for delivery 
(Calif, residents add 6% sales 
tax) 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



•Tr.iele 



rl- ol Apple ' iimputei lin 



up in smoke as soon as copies are made 
in any of the present languages. Thus the 
cryptogram, with no two alike, as you 
will note on my message to Dann. 

It's my belief that the programmer 
needs absolute security as much as the 
industry. 

An open letter to: Dann McCreary 
Congratulations Mr. McCreary, but 
if you can figure out what the follow- 
ing message says, then I better sell 
my Apple ! ! 

/baakex MkTPPi 'jWH#-T.R ZRi,bK61Zt=J["YZ<.fWS; 
JXVsmh Qc< = i Vb] /S-9MaTTnc/<e, + 89, df gwZ[P 
nLtX9"eNPU <[&R/k]Mb*oh/W%dbCTaPnH9!0TRPUY 
d kfH<KRUUO]i l/OX79vXDsg E3Tsj#X G = e/g3DSr?[fj 

Bob Thayer, Anaheim, CA 

News, Reviews, Impressions: the Dif? 

On page 47 of the June 1981 issue in the 
Marketalk column you must have taken 
Maromaty and Scotto's word for the abil- 
ity of their program CORP to generate 
an independently executable Applesoft 
program. I purchased their program un- 
der that assumption, also under the as- 
sumption that the code generated by 
CORP was accessible for modification, 
neither of which proved true. It's bad 
enough when advertisements don't rep- 
resent the product, but can't I rely on 
Softalk for accurate statements about 
what appears on the market, or must you 
rely on what you are told by the manu- 
facturers or producers? 
William Kirtz, Kyoto, Japan 

Here is the distinction between the 
three sections of Marketalk, which we 
hope will prevent future disappoint- 
ments. Marketalk Reviews represent the 
opinions of Softalk reviewers who have 
examined the product being reviewed in 
detail. Marketalk Impressions are mini- 
reviews; products described here often 
arrived too late for us to examine them in 
enough detail to warrant a full review; 
but we have seen and tried the products. 
Marketalk News, on the other hand, con- 
sists of announcements of newly avail- 
able products; we have not seen the prod- 
ucts listed in Marketalk News. 

The Ol' Reset Blues 

I've had my Apple for about a year and 
have had my frustrations with acciden- 
tally hitting the reset button. I removed 
the button for a time but didn't like the 
appearance of the computer, so I made a 
simple guard out of a three-by-five file 
card. The dimensions of the rectangular 
box are 20mm by 20mm by 30mm. I cut 
out a piece 30mm by 80mm, folded it 
every 20mm, and taped it so that a rec- 
tangular tube was formed. I then taped a 
20mm by 20mm square on top. I punched 
a hole with a paper punch in the square 
before taping it to the tube, so that a pen 
might be inserted to activate the reset 
when needed. After it was assembled, I 
slid it down over the reset key. I haven't 
had any problem since. 

Another idea concerns making nice 



print statements. I take a piece of graph 
paper and along the top of it count out 
forty spaces between quotation marks. 
Then I write what I want printed, includ- 
ing commas, etc., so words aren't 
chopped up . This way I can program 
hyphens in also, thus making everything 
neat and pretty. 
Larry Blake, Springville, UT 

Innate Hierarchy of Values 

There is a handy feature in Applesoft that 
many people aren't aware of. It isn't pub- 
lished in any of the manuals. When I 
type: 

PRINT"A">"B" 
my Apple returns 

1 

But when I type : 

PRINT"B">"A" 
my Apple returns 

0 

With a little more experimenting, I found 
that the statement is true when a higher 
ASCII value is on the greater side of the 
equation and false when on the lesser 
side of the equation. You can also com- 
pare strings that are two characters long 
and longer. 

With a little experimentation, you can 
use string comparisons to alphabetize 
strings. I am very surprised that a useful 
feature like this wasn't in any of the man- 
uals. 

David Husch, Saint Louis, MO 

A Sales Apple in the Field 

I was excited by your interview with Dick 
Clinchy and his creation, LICMS. I also 
want uses for Apple that involve client 
files on disk. I would also be interested in 
the creative uses of Apple in direct sell- 
ing — insurance or other intangible prod- 
ucts. Bringing Apple into the field for 
sales interviews at the client's office or 
home is my next project. 
Chris Greaves, Brooklin, Ontario, Can- 
ada 

Apple's Alter Ego 

I enjoyed Greg Tibbetts's first column. 
It's about time some Apple publication 
started carrying SoftCard information on 
a regular basis. 

My question is this: Although the Soft- 
Card documentation describes how to 
switch back to 6502 mode temporarily 
while under CP/M, I would like to be able 
to do the reverse ; that is, while under Ap- 
ple DOS, I'd like to switch temporarily to 
Z-80 mode for execution of particular sub- 
routines that could take advantage of 
some of the more powerful Z-80 instruc- 
tions. How can this be done? I would even 
be willing to modify the SoftCard to 
achieve this. 

Bill Krantz, North Wales, PA 

By Any Other Name .... 
I need all the help I can get. With my 
name, the Apple II was a must — please 
send Softalk as soon as possible! 
Arnold A. Appel, Sabina, OH 



OCTOBER 1981 



SOU I A I If 



15 



TH 





ATH 



By Jim Merritt 



Tools of the Craft, Part 4 : 
Control Flow and Decision 

Racing in Circles FOR a WHILE Longer. In last month's 
discussion of looping, we got as far as producing a simple pro- 
gram that uses one of Pascal's looping statements — specifi- 
cally, the REPEAT statement— to count and display each of 
the 500 miles in the Indianapolis 500 auto race : 

PROGRAM 

Indy500a; 

CONST 
EndOfRace= 500; 

VAR 
Distance 
: Integer ; 
BEGIN 
Distance : = 0 ; 
REPEAT 

Distance := Distance + 1; 
WriteLn (Distance) ; 
UNTIL Distance = EndOfRace ; 
END. 

Hopefully, you were able to compile and execute Indy500a 
with no difficulty, and you also had time to experiment with the 
program by recompiling it for different values of the constant 
EndOfRace. Playing with such small changes gives you more 
practice with the system and builds your confidence that you 
can, indeed, be successful in modifying programs for yourself 
with no explicit direction or help. 

This month, we'll finish with our first examination of loops, 
by rewriting the Indy500 program to use the two other types of 
looping statements offered by Pascal: WHILE and FOR. 

WHILE . . . DO ... In modifying the program to use a 
WHILE loop, we're faced with one major problem right from 
the start: as defined in the syntax diagrams last issue, the 
body of a WHILE loop can contain only one statement, and you 
can be reasonably sure that the body of the Indy500 loop must 
contain at least two, one to display the current value of Dis- 
tance, and one to increment it. The syntax definition of the RE- 
PEAT-UNTIL loop permits several statements to fall between 
REPEAT and UNTIL, but only one statement may follow the 
DO keyword to form the WHILE-loop body. 

Compound Statements — The deeper purpose of BEGIN and 
END. It is possible to group the several necessary statements 



COMPOUND STATEMENT 



together, so that the Pascal compiler will view them as a unit. 
You can do this by bounding those statements between the key- 
words BEGIN and END, to form a compound statement (see 
figure 1) . As long as it is expressed as a compound statement, 
a loop body may contain an arbitrarily large number of state- 
ments (even other compounds!). Remember, if there is more 
than one constituent statement in a compound, each state- 
ment must be separated from any following one by a semi- 
colon. By the way, you may already have grasped that the 
statement part of a program is really just one example of a 
compound statement. You'll see others soon. 

Here is the body of the Indy500a REPEAT-loop, written as a 
compound statement: 

BEGIN 

Distance := Distance + 1; 
WriteLn (Distance) ; 
END 

Attach this compound to a WHILE-loop, using the same ini- 
tialization statement and termination expression as in the RE- 
PEAT-UNTIL version, and you have a preliminary version of 
Indy500b: 



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PROGRAM 

Indy500b ; 

CONST 
EndOfRace= 500; 

VAR 
Distance 
: Integer ; 
BEGIN 
Distance := 0; 

WHILE Distance = EndOfRace DO 
BEGIN 
Distance : = Distance + 1 ; 
WriteLn (Distance) ; 
END; 
END. 

You shouldn't charge off to compile and execute a pro- 
gram until you have decided that it really has a chance of 
working. Remember, for a WHILE-loop, the termination con- 
dition is evaluated before the loop body is executed. If the ter- 
mination condition holds upon entering the loop, the body will 
never be executed! Now, look at the initial value of Distance, 
and the termination condition. Distance is clearly not 500 when 
control arrives at the loop, so the loop is bypassed altogether. 

Some changes must be made in Indy500b before it will yield 
the results we expect. The obvious place to start is the ter- 
mination condition. There is a subtle difference in philosophy 
between the kind of terminating condition required for a RE- 
PEAT-UNTIL loop and that needed by a WHILE-loop. The 
value of the REPEAT-UNTIL condition should be False as 
long as the loop body is to be repeated. It expresses the situa- 
tion that you feel should exist at the time the loop should cease. 
Conversely, the Boolean expression that is part of the WHILE- 
loop is more accurately characterized as a continuation condi- 
tion, rather than a termination one. That is, it must be True as 
long as the loop body bears repeating, and False only when 
iteration must end. Thus, its meaning and function are the ex- 
act opposites of the corresponding expression in the RE- 
PEAT-UNTIL loop. 

The logical opposite of "equal" ( = ) is "not equal" (<>), so 
why not try rewriting the WHILE-loop's Boolean expression as 
follows : 

Distance <> EndOfRace 

This resulting version of Indy500b is correct, and you should 
compile and execute it to see that it does, indeed, behave as ex- 
pected. 

PROGRAM 
IndySOOb; 

CONST 
EndOfRace = 500; 

VAR 
Distance 
: Integer ; 
BEGIN 
Distance := 0; 

WHILE Distance <> EndOfRace DO 
BEGIN 
Distance : = Distance + 1 ; 
WriteLn (Distance) ; 
END; 
END. 

FOR . . . TO/DOWNTO . . . DO . . . The FOR loop is a 
special case of the WHILE loop that is optimized for counting 
problems. Refer to the syntax diagram. After the keyword 
FOR, you name a control variable, which can be of any funda- 
mental type except Real, or any programmer-defined enu- 



merated or subrange type. The control variable for a FOR, just 
like any other variable, must be declared prior to use. As you 
can see, the control variable is actually introduced as part of 
an assignment, which is embedded within the FOR construc- 
tion. The assignment specifies the control variable's initial 
value, which can be any expression whose type is compatible 
with that of the variable. 

Following the assignment is the keyword TO or the key- 
word DOWNTO. If TO is used, the FOR-loop will count up, in- 
crementing the control variable to the next greater value for 
each iteration. If DOWNTO is used, the loop will count down. 
Next, the ultimate value of the control variable is specified as 
an expression. Then comes the keyword DO, and finally, the 
body of the loop. As with WHILE, the body of a FOR-loop may 
contain only a single statement, but this is no restriction, since 
that single statement may be a compound. 

The initial value of the FOR-loop control variable should be 
the first value you expect to use. In our earlier versions of 
Indy500, the initial value was 0, but this value was never ac- 
tually used for anything by the body of the loop. The first use- 
ful value was, of course, one. 

Because initialization is built into the FOR-statement, you 
don't need to put a separate initialization assignment ahead of 
the loop. You also don't need an assignment statement within 
the loop body that increments or decrements the value con- 
tained in the control variable, because the computer takes care 
of this automatically. Finally, the termination condition is 
nothing more than an expression that evaluates to the greatest 
(or least) value that the control variable should assume. 

The FOR-loop turns out to be ideal for the Indy500 problem. 
Here is the complete listing for this version of the program: 

PROGRAM 
Indy500c ; 

CONST 
EndOfRace = 500; 

VAR 
Distance 
: Integer ; 
BEGIN 

FOR Distance : = 1 TO EndOfRace DO ' 
WriteLn (Distance) ; 
END. 

Notice that the body of the FOR-loop didn't have to be a com- 
pound, because we were able to dispense with the superfluous 
incrementing of the Distance variable. For purposes of com- 
parison, the FOR-loop in Indy500c is equivalent to the follow- 
ing WHILE-loop: 

Distance := 1; 
WHILE (Distance <= EndOfRace) DO 

BEGIN 

WriteLn (Distance) ; 
Distance := Distance + 1; 
END; 

Exercise: Compare the above with Indy500b, noting the 
differences in the initialization assignment statements, termi- 
nation conditions, and bodies. 

When you want a loop to iterate a specific, finite number of 
times, and this number can be computed at the time control 
passes to the loop, you should probably construct the loop as a 
FOR statement. If you anticipate that the loop may need to 
continue for an indefinite number of cycles, or if you desire to 
increase or decrease the value of a control variable by more 
than one unit for each iteration, you should use either the RE- 
PEAT-UNTIL loop or the WHILE-loop. 

Exercise: Try rewriting Indy500 (a, b, and c) as if the race 
were run in reverse gear. That is, modify the programs to run 
backward, counting down from EndOfRace to 1. A solution to 
this exercise appears at the end of the column. Hint: You will 



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probably have to rearrange something to get a proper display. 

Extra Credit Exercise: Rewrite Indy500a so that each 
iteration corresponds to a 2.5-mile lap. Display the current Dis- 
tance in miles for every lap, and be sure that the racer doesn't 
travel any farther than 500 miles ! There are several solutions 
possible for this problem. One is given at the end of this col- 
umn. Try to resist the temptation to peek! (Why do you think 
we're not asking you to rewrite the FOR-loop version? Those 
with stout hearts might like to give it a try.) 

Decision. A simple count-up (or count-down) display is fun 
to watch once or twice, especially when the program produc- 
ing it is one you have entered and compiled yourself. How- 
ever, the novelty will soon fade, and you'll want to move on to 
fresher challenges. Here's one that we'll tackle together: modi- 
fying the Indy500c (FOR-loop) program to note when each 
quarter of the race is complete. 

First, let's be more precise in specifying our task. Of 
course, we'll produce a program that counts up, displaying the 
miles driven just as does Indy500c. In addition, though, we'll 
arrange for the program to display special markers at each 
quarter of the race, as soon as the last mile in the quarter has 
been driven. The markers will look like this: 

*** Race is q/4 finished. 



If You're Interested ... A syntax diagram for the IF-state- 
ment is shown in figure 2. The IF has two or three parts: the 
IF-clause (which includes a Boolean expression, called the IF- 
condition) , the THEN-clause (which includes a single or com- 
pound statement that will be executed should the IF-condition 
be True), and, optionally, an ELSE-clause (which, like the 
THEN-clause, includes a single or compound statement but 
will be executed only if the IF-condition is False) . Assuming 
StatementA, Statements, and BooleanExpression are the kind 
of objects their names imply, here are two examples of well- 
formed IF-statements : 



If BooleanExpression 
THEN 
StatementA 



If BooleanExpression 
THEN 

StatementA 
ELSE 

StatementB 



In the first example, either StatementA will be executed or it 
won't. In the second, either StatementA or StatementB will be 
executed but not both. The first example, which has no ELSE- 
clause, is equivalent to the following, which uses a redundant 
ELSE: 



where q is one of the numbers 1, 2, 3, or 4. 

Indy500c already embodies the counting-up portion of our 
proposed new program, so we'll use it as a starting point. How 
do we get Pascal to display the markers at the appropriate 
times? It's safe to assume that any display will involve a 
WriteLn. So, we will have to add to the program a WriteLn 
statement that causes the specified marker message to be dis- 
played. This is relatively easy (and we'll make light work of it 
soon) . Our real problem is to make sure that the WriteLn is 
executed only at certain times (namely, at the quarter-points) . 
I'll show you how to do this by incorporating the WriteLn into a 
Pascal IF-statement. 



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If BooleanExpression 
THEN 
StatementA 
ELSE ; 

(The semicolon after the keyword ELSE is to accentuate the 
fact that a null statement follows ELSE here.) 

You should note that semicolons cannot be used to separate 
the clauses in an IF-statement. Here is an example that illus- 
trates a common mistake involving improper semicolon 
usage : 

IF BooleanExpression 
THEN 
StatementA; 
ELSE 
StatementB 

When scanning this IF-statement, the compiler will believe 
that it has reached the statement's end at the semicolon that 
follows StatementA. Pressing on, the compiler will expect to 
find another statement, but will instead see the keyword 
ELSE, which cannot introduce a statement. At this point, the 
compiler will complain of an "Error 6" (Illegal Symbol). (In- 
terestingly enough, the summary of compiler error numbers in 
Apple's Pascal Language Reference Manual suggests that er- 
ror 6 is caused most often by the lack of a semicolon on a pre- 
ceding line in the program — here is a case where the error oc- 
curs because of the presence of an unnecessary semicolon!) 

For our new Indy500 program, should we use IF-THEN, or 
IF-THEN-ELSE? With every iteration of the Indy500 FOR- 
loop, either a quarter-point has been reached or it hasn't. We 
either want to display the marker message or we don't. When 
there are two, clear, mutually exclusive alternatives to choose 
from, use IF-THEN-ELSE. But here, our choice is between ex- 
ecuting the WriteLn or not executing it. We can dispense with 
the ELSE clause altogether, and simply use IF-THEN. 

For the conditional execution of the WriteLn statement to 
occur at the right time, we must find a Boolean expression that 
is true only when a quarter-point has been reached. The only 
changing object in our program — and thus the only thing we 
can use to determine when a quarter-point occurs — is the FOR- 
loop's control variable, Distance. Distance is an integer vari- 
able ; its value at any instant is some integer number. A little 
figuring shows that the values Distance will contain at the 
quarter points are 125, 250, 375, and 500, respectively. You may 
be tempted, therefore, to use the following condition in the IF- 
clause : 



((Distance = 125) OR (Distance = 250) 
OR (Distance = 375) OR (Distance = 500)) 

This will certainly work but only for 500-mile races and, then, 
only if you want to flag just the quarter-points. What if you're 
interested in only the half-way-point and finish line, or what if 
you want to see a marker for every fifth or every eighth of the 
total distance? Now, before you write that IF-condition, is the 
time for you to plan for the future of your program. To use the 
same program for races other than the Indianapolis 500, you 
may need to change one — or both — of two things : the length of 
the race, and the relative interval between markers. The race 
length is easily changed by altering the constant EndOfRace. 
Perhaps we should also introduce a constant that tells how 
many equal subdistances should be flagged by a marker mes- 
sage. Let's call this constant Partitions, and set its value at 
four for the time being. 

At this point, we know the length of the race and we know 
how many partitions need flagging. It turns out that we can use 
these two numbers to form an IF-condition that is True when a 
partition-point has been reached during the race, but False at 
all other times. To do this, we make use of several facts. First, 
the length of a partition is equal to the Integer expression 
(EndOfRace DIV Partitions). For example, when EndOfRace 
is 500 and Partitions is four, the length of a single partition is 
(500 DIV 4), or 125. 

Next, one number divides another evenly if the division pro- 
duces no remainder. Remember that the remainder of (A DIV 
B) is given by the expression (A MOD B) . So, B divides A even- 
ly if ((A MOD B) = 0). 

Finally, every distance that corresponds to a partition-point 
must be evenly divisible by the length of a partition. You can 
see that, in our specific example, each of the four partition- 
points, 125, 250, 375, and 500, is evenly divisible by the length of 
a partition, 125. 

Using the above facts, we can create the Boolean expres- 
sion we need: 

( (Distance MOD (EndOfRace DIV Partitions) ) = 0) 

Let's work backward to appreciate how this specific formula 
expresses what we mean. By successively substituting sym- 
bolic names for the subexpressions, you can see that the total 
expression is consistent with our three facts. Substituting 
LengthOfPartition for (EndOfRace DIV Partitions) gives 

((Distance MOD LengthOfPartition) = 0) 

Since the MOD expression here tells us how many miles the 
racer has driven beyond the last partition- point, we can substi- 
tute the name MilesPastLastPoint for (Distance MOD Length- 
OfPartition) to get 

(MilesPastLastPartPoint = 0) 
This expression is equivalent to saying 

AtPartitionPoint 

which is just what our IF statement needs! 

New Tricks With an Old WriteLn. To complete the IF-state- 
ment, we must construct a WriteLn that will, when executed, 
produce the message we desire. Let me throw it out to you, and 
explain what's been done afterward: 

WriteLn ( 
'*** Race is ', 

(Distance DIV (EndOfRace DIV Partitions) ) , 

'/', 

Partitions, 
' finished,' 

) 



The WriteLn statement is spread across several lines, part- 
ly for typographical reasons but mostly to accentuate the fact 
that it specifies the display of five separate items. Up to now, 
we've only displayed one data item with every WriteLn state- 
ment. However, it's possible to specify a list of items, all of 
which are to be displayed next to each other on the same out- 
put line. Two of the items— the second and fourth— are integer 
expressions and correspond respectively to the numerator and 
denominator of the fraction that we wish to display in the mark- 
er message. The information displayed for each will be the ac- 
tual value of the numeric expression, as evaluated at the time 
the WriteLn is executed. The third item ('/') is a character lit- 
eral, and, of course, the apostrophes that delimit it will not be 
displayed. 

A Word About Strings. Until now, you haven't seen the type 
of datum represented by the first and fifth display items in the 
WriteLn list — at least, not in this column. They are examples 
of character strings. A character string literal (see figure 3) is 
something like a Char literal, in that it is delimited by the apos- 
trophe mark. The Char literal, however, consists of exactly one 
character, whereas the string literal may consist of any num- 
ber of characters (or even no characters!). When a string lit- 
eral is an item in a WriteLn list, the group of characters that lie 
between its apostrophe delimiters are displayed on the screen. 
Thus, we can use string literals to display words and phrases, 
where, before now, we could show only numeric values. We'll 
go into detail about character strings in a future column. 

A word to the wise: Keep in mind that the digits (0 to 9) are 
also characters that can occur within string literals. However, 



(CHARACTER) STRING LITERAL 



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there is a world of difference, for example, between the entire- 
ly incompatible values of the string literal 123 and the integer 
literal 123. In short, a string may look like a number, but don't 
be fooled. They're not the same. 

Note that the first string literal (item 1 in the WriteLn list) 
ends with a blank and the second (item 5) begins with one. I did 
this to provide appropriate spacing between the literals and 
the material displayed between them. Remember, all the 
items in the WriteLn list are displayed, one after another, on 
the same line. Pascal doesn't put any spacing between them; 
therefore, you must do it yourself if you don't want two or more 
items to run together. To get an idea of why you must often in- 
sert these trailing, or leading, blanks, compile and execute this 
program : 

PROGRAM 

RunTogether; 
BEGIN 

WriteLnd, 0, 1) ; 

WriteLn(l, ' ', 0, ' ', 1) ; 

WriteLnCRun', 'Together'); 

WriteLn ('Run ', 'Together'); 
END. 

IF it Fits, THEN Stick it There! At last, we are finished 
with the IF-statement that controls the display of our marker 
message, and we're ready to insert it into the Indy500c frame- 
work. But where? Since we have used the variable Distance 
within the IF-statement, and Distance assumes reasonable 
values only within the FOR-loop body, it is clear that the IF- 
statement must also be a part of the loop body. To add it, how- 
ever, we'll have to convert the loop body into a compound 
statement, by placing it between the keywords BEGIN and 
END. Also, since we stipulated that the message be displayed 
just after each quarter-point has been passed, the IF-state- 
ment should be inserted into the program text following the 
original Indy500c WriteLn. 




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When you have finished editing this new version of Indy500, 
it should look like this: 

PROGRAM 
Indy500d; 

CONST 
EndOfRace= 500; 
Partitions = 4; 

VAR 
Distance 
: Integer; 
BEGIN 

FOR Distance : = 1 TO EndOfRace DO 
BEGIN 

WriteLn (Distance) ; 

IF (Distance MOD (EndOfRace DIV Partitions) = 0) 
THEN 
WriteLn('*** Race is ', 
(Distance DIV (EndOfRace DIV Partitions)), 

V, 

Partitions, 
' finished.' 

); 

END; 
END. 

Now, compile the program and execute it. You might also try 
recompiling the program for different values of Partitions and , 
EndOfRace. Be sure, though, that EndOfRace is evenly divisi- ; 
ble by Partitions. (What do you think will happen if it's not? If 
you have an answer, go ahead and test your theory.) 

What ELSE Can You Do? Perhaps, now, you'd like to try 
using an ELSE clause. I have just the thing for you. Personal- 
ly, I think that it's rather strange for the program to report 
that the race that has just ended is "4/4 finished." The actual 
end of the race is a special case, and so I'd rather see the pro- 
gram say "*** Race is over" at that point. In other words, I 
think it would be nice for the program to issue one kind of 
marker message that reports fractional progress for all the 
partition-points except the last but issue a different message 
when that final point has been reached. 

This is an IF-THEN-ELSE type of situation, because, at 
any partition-point, the program must choose whether to dis- 
play the fractional marker or the end of race marker. Notice, 
however, that this choice applies at a partition-point. In fact, 
introducing this special case means that the program has two 
levels of decision to make. First, for every mile driven, it must 
determine if a position-point has been reached so as to decide 
whether to issue a marker at all. Once it's clear that a marker 
is needed, the program must then decide which of the two mu- 
tually exclusive messages it should display. Let me show you 
how you might write this split-level decision in Pascal: 

IF (Distance MOD (EndOfRace DIV Partitions) = 0) 
THEN 

IF (Distance <> EndOfRace) 
THEN 
WriteLnC*** Race is ', 
(Distance DIV (EndOfRace DIV Parititions)), 

'/', 

Partitions, 
' finished.' 

) 

ELSE 

WriteLnC*** Race is over.'); 

The above is an example of a "nested IF-statement." That 
is, the statement controlled by an IF is itself an IF. The first 
IF-condition is the one that we have already spent so much 
time developing — it determines when a marker should be dis- 
played. The second, nested IF-condition is true for all parti- 



OCTOBER 1981 



WU I A I If & 



tion-points but the final one because, at the final one, Distance 
is exactly equal to EndOfRace. Whenever the Distance is not 
equal to EndOfRace, the WriteLn under THEN will be exe- 
cuted. When Distance becomes EndOfRace, the WriteLn un- 
der ELSE is executed instead. Note that, in accordance with 
Pascal syntax, there is no semicolon following the WriteLn 
that precedes ELSE. Try substituting the nested IF-statement 
for the one we used originally. 

Coming Attractions. Next time, our overview of pro- 
grammed decision making will conclude with a look at Pas- 
cal's CASE-statement. Also, I'll introduce you to Write, Write- 
Ln's fraternal twin, and talk about the pair's hitherto unmen- 
tioned output formatting capabilities. Finally, you'll learn to 
inject special commentary into your programs to make them 
more readable. See you in November! 

Answers to Exercises 

Exercise : 

PROGRAM 
Indy500a ; 

(* declaration area is same *) 
BEGIN 

Distance := EndOfRace; 
REPEAT 

WriteLn (Distance) ; 
Distance := Distance - i; 
UNTIL (Distance < 1) ; 
END. 

PROGRAM 
Indy500b; 

(* declaration area doesn't change *) 



BEGIN 
Distance := EndOfRace; 
WHILE Distance > 0 DO 
BEGIN 

WriteLn (Distance) ; 
Distance := Distance - 1; 
END; 
END. 

PROGRAM 
Indy500c ; 

(* declaration area doesn't change *) 
BEGIN 

FOR Distance : = EndOfRace DOWNTO 1 
WriteLn (Distance) ; 
END. 



DO 



Extra Credit Exercise 

PROGRAM 
Indy500a ; 

CONST 
EndOfRace = 500; 
LapSize= 2.5; 

VAR 
Distance 
: Integer ; 
BEGIN 
Distance := 0; 
REPEAT 
Distance : = Distance + 1 ; 
WriteLn (Distance*LapSize) ; 
UNTIL ( ( Distance *LapSize) >= EndOfRace) 
END. 



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23 




SOFICARD 
Symposium 

by Greg Tibbetts 



Last month, we discussed the features of Microsoft Basic, 
release five, and the differences between MBasic (or GBasic) 
and the two Apple Basics. We then discussed the new Basic-80 
commands — not available in either Integer or Applesoft — and 
identified all the direct commands and a few of the simpler in- 
direct commands. These are the commands left to cover: 

CHAIN LSET/RSET 

COMMON OPEN 
DEFINT/SNG/DBL/STR OPTION BASE 

ELSE RANDOMIZE 

ERASE WHILE/WEND 

FIELD WIDTH 
LINE INPUT/# 

The file handling commands will be part of a future discussion 
of file handling in general. Let's now examine commands for 
the handling of variables. 

Basic-80 can deal with four types of variables: integers, 
which, like Apple Basics, are restricted to whole numbers in 
the range of -32768 to +32767; single precision reals, which are 
numbers that may or may not have a decimal point that are 
significant to six digits; double precision reals, which are num- 
bers with or without a decimal point that are significant to six- 
teen digits; and, finally, strings that represent not numbers at 
all but collections of zero or more ASCII characters (a string 
with zero characters is called a null string). The many differ- 
ent numeric variable types provide the user with maximum 
flexibility. True integer variable types and integer arithmetic 
like that found in Integer Basic execute much faster and take 
less than half the storage space of floating point variable types 
and arithmetic like that in Applesoft. (Note : Applesoft doesn't 
use true integer storage or manipulation even when variables 
have been explicitly declared as integers by the % sign having 
been appended to the variable name.) Floating point vari- 
ables are required, however, to represent numbers outside the 
range of integer representation or arithmetic operations, and 
the penalties of space and speed are accepted as part of the 
cost. Basic-80, in providing for true integers, four-byte single 
precision reals, and eight- byte double precision reals, gives 
you a reasonable choice between precision and space and 
speed considerations. 

Basic-80's commands for declaration of variable types con- 
sist of immediate, explicit declarations similar to those in the 
Apple Basics (% for integers, ! for single precision, # for dou- 
ble precision, and $ for strings) , plus the ability to define whole 
classes of variables (all those beginning with a named letter) , 
as a type. The variable class definition capability is provided 
by the DEFxxx statements; DEFINT for integers, DEFSNG 
for single precision, DEFDBL for double precision, and 
DEFSTR for string variables. Thus, a single statement at the 
beginning of the program of the form DEFINT A will make all 
variables in the program beginning with the letter A default to 
integers. Explicitly declared variables (for example, A#), are 
not affected by this; therefore, they'll be treated as whatever 
type is indicated by their appended signs. If no declaration is 



■ ill 

made, Basic-80 defaults all variables to single-precision reals. 

One final point about DEFxxx statements : they set up sep- 
arate variable tables for each variable type when the state- 
ment is encountered, and, while issuing multiple DEFxxx 
statements for the same variables is allowed and will have pre- 
dictable results, doing this can generate real confusion if the 
effects are not anticipated. Here's a program segment that il- 
lustrates this: 

10 Defint A :A= 1000: Print A 

20 Defdbl A: A= 1.0000000001: Print A 

30 Defint A: Print A 

generates the following output when run 
1000 

1.0000000001 
1000 

It's easy to see that the declaration and assignment of A made 
by line 10 were still intact even after line 20 was executed ; how- 
ever, because of line 20, Basic-80 could not find the earlier 
value until the second DEFINT A was executed in line 30. This 
feature can be useful but should be used with care. 

The final variable-related command is ERASE; use it 
whenever you want to eliminate storage space taken up in 
memory by an array, either to redefine a new array with the 
same variable name or simply to clear more memory for other 
purposes. The command's format is ERASE followed by a list 
of array variables. ERASE alone (with no variable names fol- 
lowing it) generates a syntax error. Once an ERASE state- 
ment is encountered, all values associated with the array are 
unrecoverable, and attempts to access elements up to AR- 
RAY (10) — the default dimension for new arrays — will return 0 
as the value; attempts to access higher elements result in a 
subscript-out-of-range error. 

Let's now deal with commands that pass control between 
two programs: the command pair CHAIN and COMMON. In 
the Apple Basics, the limited ability to pass control to other 
programs on disk is handled exclusively by Apple DOS through 
the Basic RUN and PRINT commands combined with the DOS 
prefix character control-D in the form PRINT "<control- 
D>RUN progname." In both Applesoft and Integer, this se- 
quence runs the named program and, in the process, erases 
the existing program and its variables. In Integer Basic, the 
DOS command CHAIN (used in the same print format) runs 
the named program and preserves the variables. In Apple- 
soft, saving the variables requires Bloading a machine lan- 
guage program named CHAIN and then calling it with the new 
program name appended. 

Basic-80, on the other hand, is fully capable of chaining one 
program to another while preserving the variables in the ex- 
isting program. Overlaying is also allowed, but here it's a 
somewhat more primitive procedure than some mainframe 
users may be familiar with. It's done with the MERGE op- 
tion; we'll discuss this in detail later. 

CHAIN, in its least complex form, is simply CHAIN 



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"drprogname", where progname is the called program on disk 
drive d: ; default is the currently logged drive. If no other op- 
tions are specified, this functions exactly like PRINT 
"<control-D>RUN progname" in either Apple Basic. If you 
want the execution of the new program to begin at a specific 
line number, the number preceded by a comma must be add- 
ed (for example, CHAIN "progname",1000). Using a variable 
for the line number is allowed, and this allows conditional 
branching to your choice of any number of entry points in the 
called program. 

Variables may be passed straight to the called program ei- 
ther by using the ALL option to CHAIN or by using the COM- 
MON statement in the calling program. If you want to pass all 
variable values to the called program, simply append the word 
ALL preceded by a comma to the CHAIN command string 
(that is, CHAIN "progname", ALL). If, for space conservation 
or some other reason you want only to pass some variables, 
the calling program must inform Basic-80 that some variables 
are to be preserved in subsequent CHAINs and others may be 
overwritten. Do this with one or more COMMON statements, 
formatted as COMMON followed by a list of variables to be 
preserved. Variable names must be separated by commas. In- 
clude entire arrays by appending () to the array name — for ex- 
ample, ARAYVAR (). 

When you use conditional branching to selected programs, 
you can pass any number of common variable sets simply by 
designing the calling program to execute only one of several 
COMMON statements (called COMMON declarations). Take 
care, however, since Basic-80 won't allow a variable to be de- 
clared COMMON in more than one statement in each pro- 
gram. Accomplish this by declaring COMMON all variables 
shared by all the program modules at the very beginning of the 
program. Then have conditional program segments declare 
those shared by only a few. Once the COMMON declarations 
have been made in the calling program, just use the CHAIN 
statement in its regular form to preserve these variables. 



Be aware that variable type declarations — DEFINT, 
DEFSNG, DEFDBL, and DEFSTR — as well as user defined 
functions such as DEFFN — are not passed to the called pro- 
gram. This means that these statements must be restated in 
the called program if variables declared or functions defined 
by them are to be used. If, for example, the statement 

10 Defint A: A= 10: Common A 

were declared in the calling program, the called program 
wouldn't be able to access variable A — it would treat it as 0, or 
undefined — unless it also contained the statement DEFINT A. 
So remember that whenever you use variable type declara- 
tions and user function definitions with chained programs, you 
must always duplicate such statements in all program mod- 
ules. 

Basic-80 's overlay capability is brought into play through 
the MERGE option. The term overlay, in this case, means that 
a program or program segments is brought in from disk and 
overlays part of the existing program in memory. In this way, 
it's similar to the MERGE direct command and, in fact, some 
of the same rules apply. Program files on disk to be brought in 
must have been saved in ASCII format. The program, when 
it's brought in, doesn't erase the entire calling program but 
merges with it, eliminating only those lines of the calling pro- 
gram that have identical line numbers to those in the program 
coming in. 

Unlike the direct command, however, the MERGE option 
performs its task and continues in the normal function of the 
CHAIN command, beginning execution of the composite pro- 
gram now in memory. All the normal CHAIN functions are 
still valid. For example, if no starting line number is specified, 
execution begins with the lowest numbered line of the com- 
posite program. This, incidentally, usually starts the calling 
program over again only in its modified form. Typically, over- 
lays are used in place of several chained stand-alone pro- 




26 



■ \S 



OCTOBER 1981 



grams when the bulk of the programs are identical and only a 
few routines are different. In these cases, it's desirable to 
structure the main program so it has a block of line numbers to 
use as an overlay area for each function that has multiple 
choices. So, while the program proceeds, you set up the select- 
ed function (program segment to be overlaid), use CHAIN 
MERGE to bring it in, and execute it. Later, other overlays 
may be brought in to the overlay area as needed for execution. 
An example is a payroll program that calculates state income 
tax when applicable. The program would ask for the payee's 
state of residence and, based on the answer, would select the 
correct overlay program name to be called in later, assigning 
it to a string variable. The program would then GOSUB to a 
general purpose CHAIN MERGE statement that would bring 
the appropriate overlay into the proper area and execute it. In 
this example, the overlay need end only with a RETURN to 
continue execution of the main program. If the overlay area 
were the block of line numbers from 10000 to 10500, the state- 
ment would look like this: 



aren't replacing one program with another in memory, vari- 
able declarations of the form DEFxxx remain in effect even 
for the overlay, so there's no need to repeat them whenever the 
MERGE option is used with CHAIN. As you might suspect, 
the same is true for user-defined functions, such as DEFFN. 

Let's now examine commands for conditional branching of 
program control— ELSE and WHILE/WEND. The ELSE com- 
mand is an additional option used with the IF . . . THEN com- 
mand pair, which lets you set up a clear either/or decision 
point. Using Apple Basics, if you wish to have the program per- 
form one function if the IF conditional were true and some 
other function if it were false, you'll need to create another line 
immediately below the conditional directing Basic to perform 
the alternate function. Using IF . . . THEN . . . ELSE in Ba- 
sic-80 it's possible to combine everything in a statement like 
this: 



10 If A=B Then 140 
20 GOTO 240 



10 If A=B Then 140 Else 240 



8000 CHAIN MERGE "A$", 10000, ALL 

If the overlay area will be used more than once, it's dan- 
gerous just to bring in new overlays and execute them be- 
cause lines not specifically replaced by the new overlay re- 
main and are executed. Delete old overlays prior to merging in 
new ones by adding the DELETE option to the CHAIN com- 
mand string. In this case, it would become: 



8000 CHAIN MERGE 
10500 



"A$",10000,ALL,DELETE 10000- 



This much safer form is preferred. Note that we used the ALL 
option, the usual method of preserving variables when over- 
laying. The main program is still intact, and it's assumed that 
all current variables will still be needed. Notice that since we 



Because of the way Basic-80 is organized, it's also possible 
to include several tasks to be performed at each decision point. 
Basic-80 ignores the remainder of a line after a false condi- 
tional until an ELSE statement occurs. Then it'll ignore the 
ELSE statement and all that follows if the conditional is true. 
For example, if we wanted to see if A were equal to B and, if so, 
make A equal to C, make B equal to C, and jump to line 1000 
but, if not, then make A equal to B, C equal to B, jump to line 
2000, we would do it like this: 

10 If A=B Then A=C:B=C:Goto 1000 Else A=B:C=B:Goto 
2000 

As long as the ELSE statement is on the same logical line (no 
other line number occurs before it), the example can be ex- 
tended up to the allowed length of a Basic line. 



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WHILE and WEND initiate a program loop sequence simi- 
lar to the FOR . . . NEXT pair. The difference is that instead of 
explicitly stating the maximum number of loop iterations to be 
performed, WHILE . . . WEND lets you continue executing the 
loop while some condition is true and exit when it becomes 
false. Say you wanted continuous input from the keyboard un- 
til the word end is entered. Using a FOR . . . NEXT sequence 
would require an IF . . . THEN conditional test inside the loop, 
so when end appears, the program would branch out of the 
loop. With WHILE . . . WEND, no test is required. Examine 
this: 



10 For 1=1 To 10000 

20 Input A$ 

30 If A$="END" Then 

1=10001 
40 Next I 



10 While A$<>"END' 
20 Input A$ 
30 Wend 



Obviously, the more serious the purpose, the greater potential 
savings of time and program space provided by WHILE . . . 
WEND. 

We'll look now at LINE INPUT; OPTION BASE; RAN- 
DOMIZE; and WIDTH, the miscellaneous commands. The 
simplest of these is OPTION BASE, which sets the minimum 
value for array subscripts to either 0 or 1. The default value is 
0, and when used in the form OPTION BASE 1, the smallest ar- 
ray subscript allowed is 1. This helps match the number of pos- 
sible subscripts to the figure used in the DIMension statement. 
In OPTION BASE 0, DIM A(10) sets aside A(0) through A(9), 
but after execution of OPTION BASE 1, that statement sets 
aside A(l) through A (10). 

The RANDOMIZE command reseeds the random number 
generator. The Apple Basics use a memory location that's con- 
tinually increasing, overflowing, and starting again as the 
random number seed. In contrast, Basic-80 requires that you, 
the programmer, supply the seed value from which the ran- 
dom numbers are computed. The seed value must be in the 
range of -32768 to +32767 and, given the same seed on succes- 
sive runs, it will generate the same values. At first, the idea of 
generating identical sequences of random numbers may seem 
strange, but, actually, it could be no other way. The Apple 
can't generate a truly random number because all algorithms 
are just computations performed the same way with the same 
results each time. An algorithm used by Basic-80, however, is 
sound. As long as a different seed is selected for each run of the 
program, the numbers computed will be random enough for 
most purposes. To avoid supplying the seed each time, just in- 
put the current date and time ; any number of simple calcula- 
tions will generate a unique seed number. 

The WIDTH command resets the width and height of the 
default screen. If LPRINT is inserted immediately following 
the WIDTH, it'll reset printer width, too. Be aware that if you 
use an eighty-column board or external terminal, WIDTH may 
cause some unpredictable effects depending on your compu- 
ter's configuration or firmware. Printers and their firmware 
or software driver routines may also play havoc with your 
WIDTH command. 

The last miscellaneous command is LINE INPUT, which is 
very similar to the standard INPUT command to a string var- 
iable with some minor differences. First, no question mark is 
printed to signify that input is requested. Second, all charac- 
ters except carriage returns are included. In contrast, if the 
INPUT command encounters a quotation mark as the first 
character, it will read input only to the next occurrence of a 
quotation mark. The commands also differ in the combination 
of punctuation marks within each. The best way to determine 
the effects of these differences is to experiment with the two 
commands for a few minutes. 

Next month, we'll explore the file handling commands and 
other commands that resemble their counterparts in Apple Ba- 
sics, but are used differently by Basic-80. We'll also cover their 
extra functions as well as the conversion process required to 
get non-Basic-80 Basic programs to run properly. DI 



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31 




APPLE-DIAGNOSED 
INTELLIGENCE 
SHATTERS IQ 

BV CREC VOV> 



If there's one thing Bob Meeker wants to change, it's the 
system of education. And if there's an unusual way to go about 
it, he's chosen it: educational and vocational testing. The fact 
that the computer is one of his most important tools probably 
comes as little surprise to those accustomed to the miracle 
works of the information revolution. 

To more than a thousand school districts in the United 
States, Canada, Australia, and, through an affiliate, Japan, 
Meeker's computer program acts as a clinical psychologist. 
The program diagnoses a group of tests designed by Meeker 
and his wife Mary. For each student, the computer analyzes 
the tests and prints out an intellectual profile that points to 
strengths and weaknesses in a child's learning abilities. In ad- 
dition, the printout recommends remedial exercises to en- 
hance weak abilities. 

IQ Comes in Ninety Pieces. Structure of Intellect (SOI) is 
an educational service based on a model of intelligence de- 
veloped by J. P. Guilford. Mary and Robert Meeker have used 
the model to break down the concept of intellect into ninety 
components. Tests were developed for the twenty-six of those 
components most needed for learning skills in grammar school 
and intermediate school. 

Bob Meeker has written a program for the Apple that will 
interpret the results of SOI tests. The program allows teach- 
ers, administrators, and school psychologists to do inhouse 
analyses of the tests and set up individualized curriculums that 
cater to student needs. The formal curriculum title is Individ- 
ual Educational Planning. 

Structure of Intellect is a threefold process of testing, diag- 
nosis, and remedial treatment. Tests are primarily for kinder- 
garten through twelfth grade, but adult versions are avail- 
able. Remedial exercises, available from the SOI center in El 
Segundo, California, help develop a child's weak abilities. 

"When most people think of computers in education, they 
think of computer-aided instruction," says Meeker. "That's 
not what we're doing here." SOI advocates curriculum-aided 
instruction, where teachers are helped to determine the kinds 
of educational experiences most needed by a particular stu- 
dent. The computer program recommends the curriculum. 
You might call it computer-aided curriculum. 

SOI tests are more thorough than standard IQ tests. Among 
other things, they test judgment and planning skills in four 
areas. Meeker believes the depth of the test gives more useful 
information : 

"Any one test is not telling you one thing, but three things. 
All that is in contrast to most tests, which tell you one thing; 
they give you one score, an IQ score, like 109. All that tells you 
is where you are in terms of the general population — every- 
thing mushed together into one figure. 

"What the SOI test does is tell you where you are on each of 



the twenty-six tests and what your relative strengths and 
weaknesses are. That gets fairly complicated." 

The complication of scoring and analyzing tests is the rea- 
son Meeker has resorted to a computer. To understand how a 
floppy disk can turn an Apple computer into a clinical psychol- 
ogist, it's important to understand what SOI is all about. 

Describing the Structures. Any one SOI test measures three 
things: (1) abilities, (2) content, (3) levels of complexity. Abil- 
ities indicate the type of operation an individual performs, 
such as identifying, remembering, or problem solving. Con- 
tent indicates the type of information being worked with — like 
pictures, symbols, or words. Levels of complexity indicate 
the difficulty of the material worked with, individual units or 
complex systems, for example. The model is represented in 
the following chart: 



C 

M 
E 
N 
D 



ABILITIES 

Cognition 
Memory 
Evaluation 
Problem Solving 
Creativity 



CONTENT 

F Figural 
S Symbolic 
M Semantic 



LEVELS of Complexity 

U Units 

C Classes 

R Relations 

S Systems 

T Transformations 

I Implications 



In the chart, the letters to the left of the terms make it pos- 
sible to represent the tests symbolically. The trigram EFU, 
for instance, stands for evaluation of figural units. Someone 
who has problems with this skill is likely to mistake b's for p's 
and to omit small words in the middle of a sentence. It's not un- 
usual for people who are poor in MSU (memory of symbolic 
units) to forget where they leave things or to have problems 
spelling. Trouble with NSI (problem solving for symbolic im- 
plications) would mean trouble with reasoning, logic, and 
thought problems. 

To take the category of content as an example, some peo- 
ple work better with drawings, pictures, and graphs. These are 
figural in content and are the province of drafters and artists. 
Computer programmers, mathematicians, or musicians, on 
the other hand, would probably work best with symbolic infor- 
mation such as codes, numbers, and notes. Others work best 
with words and ideas or semantic information. Writers and lin- 
guists are at home with this type of content. 

Even without going into definitions for all the terms, you 
can see that with five types of ability, three types of content, 
and six levels of complexity, ninety combinations are possible. 
The Meekers pared down the number to twenty-six — perhaps 
just to keep their clinicians from going mad. 

Because boys and girls have traditionally been socialized in 
different ways, they have developed different intellectual 
skills. Boys are encouraged to work with mechanical things 
(building models, working with cars and tools), but girls are 
not. This might be one reason why SOI test patterns indicate 



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that, while girls tend to be good with symbolic material re- 
quired for arithmetic, boys tend to be good with manipulating 
figural material required in mathematics. 

According to SOI theories, arithmetic and mathematics are 
two different skills. In the early years of elementary school, 
girls excel in arithmetic. Arithmetic involves mastering math 
tables and math facts that can be committed to memory 
(arithmetic skills: CSS, ESS, NSS, MSU, MSS, ESC). Mathe- 
matics, in contrast, requires manipulation of abstract con- 
cepts and figures such as logic and systems. At this stage in 
school, girls fall behind, not having developed skills in higher 
levels of complexity: relations, transformations, and implica- 
tions (math skills: CFS, CFT, CSR, MSI, NSI). 

Strengths and Weaknesses Identified. The advantage of the 
SOI over other tests is that it can pinpoint the exact area of 
weakness for any student. Meeker believes other tests, which 
lack this diagnostic capability, leave a vague impression of a 
student's problem areas. 

"If we get an assessment that tells us, 'This student is be- 
low average,' that doesn't help us very much. We want to know 
why this student is below average. We would like some sort of 
diagnostic assessment that says, 'Students like this probably 
are not performing because they lack these kinds of abili- 
ties.' " The SOI- LA is such an assessment. 

The SOI-LA (learning abilities) test evaluates twenty-six 
abilities. Some tests require that you identify a picture with 
missing parts ; others have you pick irrational numbers out of 
a series. Another test has you listen to numbers read aloud, re- 
member them, and write them down. This exercise is also per- 
formed visually with the numbers flashed on printed cards. In 
one test, you must break up several lines of letters into mean- 
ingful sentences. You might be asked to pick the one of five 
geometric figures similar to a target figure. 

If it sounds like kid stuff, don't be fooled. There is an adult 
version, but grownups will even find a challenge in sections of 
the elementary school version. 



How well you perform on any given test might be deter- 
mined by your cultural background. "American Indians will 
put the rest of the population to shame when it comes to cer- 
tain kinds of figural abilities," says Meeker. He explains that 
many American Indians are shepherds and so are much more 
concerned with small visual detail on a daily basis. 

SOI has taken great pains to avoid a culturally biased test 
that emphasizes semantic content over figural and symbolic. 
Foreign and minority students who have scored poorly on tra- 
ditional tests often score well on SOI figural and symbolic ones. 
The problem is often with the test. It's common for someone of 
high intelligence who is unfamiliar with the English language 
to score low in IQ. 

Once the test is taken, scores are entered into the compu- 
ter, which prints out a thirteen-page report on each student. 
The Apple program breaks the report into seven parts. The 
first five parts indicate the students' scores, three perfor- 
mance profiles, and evaluations of the students' abilities as re- 
lated to basic and advanced levels of reading, arithmetic, 
mathematics, and three kinds of creativity. The last two sec- 
tions prescribe exercises for specific and general weakness by 
finding those exercises that use a student's strong skills to en- 
hance those that are weak. 

Printout of a Diagnosis. Asked if his service was more use- 
ful to gifted or special education students, Meeker frowned in 
distaste at the labeling. "You see," he said, "you never get a 
profile that is entirely in the gifted range or entirely in the dis- 
abled range. There are always strengths and weaknesses." 

The printout he held in his hand illustrated the point. "Now 
here is a fifth grader who scored at the superior or gifted level 
on sixteen of the twenty-six tests. He scored average or above 
on another seven. So on twenty-three of twenty-six tests, he 
scored average or above, most of those superior or gifted. Yet 
he was in the limited range on three tests, with one ability 
(CFC) near disabled. A limited CFC (visual conceptualiza- 
tion) score would indicate that in terms of reading this child is 



ENERGY GAMES 

presents 



COLORBLIND 




Written by BOB JOHNSTON and 
AL IAPICCA of MARIN DATA SYSTEMS 



Your Hovercraft await you at your homebase 
island. The mission? To seek out and destroy 
yourenemy! How? By getting underway, cruising 
the straits of The Cluster Islands, and, upon 
coming into visual contact with your opponent, 
blast him out of the water! 

This new, exciting game employs a concept 
never before used in the home computer industry. 
The color goggles that come with this game allow 
two players to view one color screen and see only 
their own situations, until that critical moment 
when the two antagonists come within line of 
sight of each other. 

Then the chase is on! The aggressor chases his 
fleeing opponent firing all the while, attempting 
to damage or destroy him! 

The craft that runs is not defenseless either. He 
may drop an invisible mine as he makes his 
escape. And, by simply turning a corner, he will 
again disappear from his pursuer's sight. 

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34 



son a i i 



OCTOBER 1981 



going to have trouble. It's a shame, because the other ten read- 
ing skills are at the expected, superior, or gifted levels. 

"But this tells us right where the problem is. It's right there. 
We can pinpoint it with CFC. Now that's a skill we can train." 

Once weaknesses are pinpointed, a remedial curriculum is 
recommended. The computer is programmed to recommend 
exercises that will combine two strong areas with the weak 
area to be worked on. A sample prescription looks like this: 

PART SEVEN: PRESCRIPTIONS TARGETED TO GENERAL ABILITIES NEEDS 

A general weakness in transformations is indicated. The following exercises will train 
this weakness through known strengths: 

***Remediate through strengths in: Cognition and seMantic CMT 

***Remediate through strengths in: Memory and Symbolic MST 

***Remediate through strengths in: Memory and seMantic MMT 

***Remediate through strengths in: Evaluation .... and Symbolic EST 

***Remediate through strengths in: Evaluation .... and seMantic EMT 

A general weakness in Figural is indicated. The following exercises will train this 
weakness through known strengths: 

♦♦♦Remediate through strengths in: Cognition and Systems CFS 

♦♦♦Remediate through strengths in: Cognition and Implications CFI 

♦♦♦Remediate through strengths in: Memory and Systems MFS 

♦♦♦Remediate through strengths in: Memory and Implications MFI 

♦♦♦Remediate through strengths in: Evaluation .... and Systems EFS 

♦♦♦Remediate through strengths in: Evaluation .... and Implications EFI 

A general weakness in Classes is indicated. The following exercises will train this 
weakness through known strengths: 

♦♦♦Remediate through strengths in: Cognition and Symbolic CSC 

♦♦♦Remediate through strengths in: Cognition and seMantic CMC 

♦♦♦Remediate through strengths in: Memory and Symbolic MSC 

Each of the trigrams in the right column (CMT, MST, and 
so on) indicated specific exercises found in workbooks avail- 
able through the SOI Center. The last page of the computer 
printout summarizes specific abilities to be trained, lists the 
workbooks to be used, and indicates the necessary exercises in 
each workbook. 

Although seventy-seven exercises were recommended for 
the student in the sample printout, the remedial costs are rela- 
tively low. All exercises recommended for him were con- 
tained in six workbooks. Altogether, SOI has eleven work- 
books for basic and advanced abilities (cognition, memory, 
evaluation, problem solving, and creativity) . A set of books 
can be shared by a classroom, since students work individual- 
ly, dropping the cost (twelve dollars per book) per student con- 
siderably. 

If you walk in off the street, twenty dollars will see you 
through testing, diagnosis, and remedial recommendations at 
SOI. A school district can license an Apple program for an 
eighteen- hundred-dollar lifetime fee. The costs can be amor- 
tized in a matter of a few hundred students. The district still 
must pay for remedial workbooks, but, when compared to the 
costs of remedial therapy administered by a psychologist, the 
program looks very attractive. 

In fact, were it not for the computer program, many dis- 
tricts would find adequate professional services either locally 
unavailable or financially prohibitive. School psychologists are 
a luxury such districts cannot afford. 

Fortunately, costs and availability of training sources are 
no longer obstacles with the SOI program. 

The Apple Shares the Load. Even the Apple has its limits. 
There is an additional section of the computer printout that re- 
quires a computer with a larger memory than Apple's. This 
section, titled "Clinical Analysis," is designed to recognize spe- 
cial combinations of problems. For example, what does it 
mean to be low average in CFU and low in CFC? 

This combination will affect comprehension. The clinical 
analysis makes these recommendations for the combination : 

Comprehension Abilities 
Susie scored low average on CFU 
Susie is low in DFC 



Ask Susie's parents to help her make collections of rocks, shells, stamps, and 
leaves to develop classifications. 
Susie is a low comprehension student but is high in symbolic and will learn to 
read best with phonetic systems. 

The clinical analysis portion of the computer printout is 
quite elaborate and makes up six pages of recommendations. 
Other categories diagnosed in the clinical analysis include 
memory abilities; judgment, planning, and decision-making 
abilities; problem-solving abilities for known answers; and 
creative abilities. The analysis also recommends enhance- 
ment skills for areas in which the child excels. This was the 
case for Susie: 

JUDGMENT, PLANNING, AND DECISION-MAKING ABILITIES 
SAMPLE is high in EFC. In general, gifted students are more likely to score average in 
EFU, EFC, and ESC, but high in ESS (a rote-arithmetic skill). Students who do well in 
EFC are excellent at pulling together similar kinds of information into concepts. 

SAMPLE is high in ESS, indicating a strength in selection of principles for solving rote- 
math problems. 

SAMPLE is gifted in ESC. This ability will enable her to determine selection of appro- 
priate concepts or correct principles for arithmetic problem solving. It is the V E' com- 
ponent that so often causes young students to cry when they can't use their arith- 
metic basics (CSS). 

The other abilities in evaluation are as expected for her grade level. 

There follow book referrals for teacher and student culled 
from a computer-resident library of reference sources on file. 

Such an analysis is very useful to a teacher but, unfortu- 
nately, not possible on the Apple program. "It isn't that the 
concepts are so complicated," says Meeker. "It's just that the 
combinations, computations, and permutations are fairly 
high." When you consider that the computer must keep on file 
several paragraphs for any possible combination of the twen- 
ty-six skills and seven levels of performance (disabled to gift- 
ed), you can see what he's talking about. A 200K computer is 
required to handle the information. 

The analysis changes from day to day as new combina- 
tions are discovered. Only trained clinicians can properly in- 
terpret new combinations. Almost every clinical analysis is, 
therefore, looked over by resident clinicians at SOI to ensure 
accuracy of diagnosis and proper revision of the program. 

Apple owners take heart. SOI has plans to develop telecom- 
munications abilities so that your Apple can talk to SOI's Wang 
V.S. by phone. You can enter test scores at your terminal and 
use SOI computing power to process the information. Your Ap- 
ple will then print out the entire diagnosis or just the clinical 
analysis, whichever you prefer. In the meantime, for the clini- 
cal analysis, you'll have to communicate with SOI by mail. 

Even without the clinical analysis, the Apple program is 
valuable. Twenty-two school districts lease the program. Ten 
of those districts use Apple computers: Longview, Wisconsin; 
Saint Joseph, Missouri; Hensdale, Illinois; Grand Rapids, 
Michigan; Manassas, Virginia; Ashland, Albany, and Mil- 
waukie, Oregon; and Placerville and Eureka, California. 
Other than these twenty-two, all public and private schools 
work with SOI by mail. 

Everyone Can Have Pros with Apple. One of the greatest 
untapped uses of the computer, from Meeker's viewpoint, lies 
in making professional services available to communities that 
would otherwise have to do without. Currently, there are two 
obstacles to widespread use of psychological and educational 
diagnostic services. One is availability of trained profession- 
als; the other is cost. 

What happens when a diagnosis can be made, but no reme- 
dial treatment is available? Meeker cites the field of vision 
therapy as an example where trained professionals are sim- 
ply unavailable in remote areas. What do you do if you dis- 
cover correctable vision problems but you live in an area 
where there is no trained vision therapist? Some sort of para- 
professional training becomes necessary to spread knowledge 
and skills. 



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• Searches or sorts, subtotals or totals may 
be performed on any field at any time, not 

just on those that are indexed or specified in 

advance. 

• Search results may be displayed, printed, 
deleted, counted, totalled, edited, and/or 

saved to a new data file. 



OTHER FEATURES 




The sophisticated report generator allows 
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You can print form letters, columnar 
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Data, ratios or the results of calculations 
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reports. 

The report generator gives your output the 
professional appearance that you require. 



SYNERGISTIC SOFTWARE 



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Washington residents add 5.4% sales tax. 
Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 



• HARD DISK DRIVE COMPATIBILITY 

with hard drive version, works with Corvus 
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• Works with all Floppy drives with slot, 
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• You can append or merge up to a full disk 
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Searches can contain up to 10 levels. You can 
search for a key word in any field, the absence 
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• Global editing of data may be performed. 

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• With $5.00 Registration Fee receive one 

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" The package requires an Apple II plus or 
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36 



OCTOBER 1981 



A possible solution is being tried in a New York school dis- 
trict where parents were taught to administer visual therapy 
for local schoolchildren under the direction of a professional 
therapist. 

The Apple program is one means of training paraprofes- 
sionals in the field of educational psychology. By working with 
the computer analysis, text materials, and inservice manuals 
supplied by SOI, teachers and administrators become skilled 
in the diagnosis of learning problems. Typically, it takes some- 
one working with the SOI tests in the classroom two to three 
years to become as good at diagnosis as the computer pro- 
gram. In the meantime, the computer serves as a tutor. Meek- 
er likens the relationship between computer and teacher to 
that between psychologist and intern. 

The use of computers to train paraprofessionals might be 
one example of Clive Smith's notion, given in "Life in the In- 
formation Age" in New Age magazine (September 1981) , of the 
highest expression of informational values and technology: 
"Mass utilization of decentrally produced knowledge (using 
computers and networks) for personal and social transforma- 
tion." 

The Price Is Right for Schools. Probably more than any- 
thing, it's the cost factor that is bringing computers into the 
world of education. A district that can't afford a school psy- 
chologist often can afford a computer. Many districts already 
have computers for clerical purposes or for instruction. "By 
the time you get the cost of computing down to where it is with 
the Apple, there's hardly anybody around who can't afford to 
buy an Apple and our program," says Meeker. 

Meeker says ten years ago it wasn't a possibility to bring 
computers into education. He should know. In 1956, he was 
working for System Development Corporation trying to pro- 
mote computer-aided instruction. The main impetus behind 
computers now being accepted is cost. 

"Short of tripling a student's achievement, nothing re- 
search could have done would have made a difference. Now 
that computers are down to fifteen hundred dollars, you're go- 
ing to get computer-aided instruction. You're not going to get it 
because anybody demonstrated that it's any better; it's be- 
cause it's available." 

The single greatest boon to computers in education, ac- 
cording to Meeker, would be a public decision to go to a vouch- 
er system. Again, it's cost more than educational value that 
counts. It's cheaper to buy a computer and software than to 
pay for aides and instructors. 

Meeker also sees the educational problem from an em- 
ployer's perspective. He believes that computer education not 
properly administered can be somewhat dysfunctional. He 
cites local high school students whom he has employed. 
Trained in computer science classes, they are good at pro- 
gramming but lack a business perspective of time and re- 
source limitations. 

Students who come to work for Meeker have been reward- 
ed for two things by their high school teachers: writing ele- 
gant programs and writing clever programs. Because they 
lack a business perspective, they don't ask crucial questions. 

"They don't ask questions like 'How many times is this pro- 
gram going to be run? One time? Ten times? Every day for the 
next three years?' Now, those are three different programs." 

Students often use too much of the limited resources and 
cannibalize someone else's program. They will use up more 
memory and computer time than necessary. They don't ask 
how much of their own time they should put into a program. 

Meeker says teachers don't have the orientation toward 
business they need to guide the student to ask the right ques- 
tions. "I'm not sure that I would expect them to," he says. "It's 
new." 

Study Habits Aren't Always Work Habits. The problem is 
not one that applies only to computer science. Meeker feels it's 
a problem with the current system of education: 

"There used to be an obvious correspondence between the 
skills we learned in school and their application in the work 
world. What would right the ship of education has little to do 



with computers. It has to do with the correspondence between 
education and work. There's almost none now." 

To Meeker, school does not foster an attitude of responsi- 
bility that is required at work. No one depends on a student to 
carry on activities at school. At work you would probably be 
fired for bringing in an excuse after an absence. Yet, at school, 
that's what children are taught to do. 

"Try having someone who is in elementary school call in 
sick ahead of time," suggests Meeker. "You know what they'll 
say? 'Why the hell are you calling us?' It doesn't matter if they 
know whether you're going to be there or not." 

This indicates several things to Meeker. First, the fact that 
you don't have to call says the school is not counting on you be- 
ing there, except in the sense of occupying a seat and getting 
money for your presence. So a medical excuse is just as good. 
Secondly, nothing that happens depends on a student's pres- 
ence. It's not that, because a student didn't show, something 
that was going to happen now won't happen. 

After getting that message for twelve to fourteen years, it's 
little wonder that students have trouble accepting responsibil- 
ity at a job where they're expected to be present and perform. 

Computing Alternative Futures. Meeker has a vision of a 
school that would prepare students better for the world of 
work. Why not make schools units of production in society? Ev- 
erybody is capable of working, and everybody should be given 
the message that their contribution is valued. "Work educa- 
tion" would include kindergarten through twelfth grade. All 
students would be given work and receive wages. First 
graders might receive twenty-five cents an hour while seniors 
would get minimum wage. The imagination is the only limit to 
the number of jobs students could perform: running mes- 
sages, cleaning blackboards and restrooms, checking out 
equipment, tutoring. Students would receive two report cards: 
one for academic performance, one for work performance. 

Now, schools take kids to the dairy or the bank to see how 
they are run. "Better that you run a business at school," says 
Meeker. Kids would get checks. They'd have a credit union. 
They could borrow money from the credit union. Kids wouldn't 
see a business only from the outside. They'd be part of a busi- 
ness. By the time those kids graduated, employers would be 
knocking at the school doors because those kids would know 
how to work. 

The ultimate test of a school's success would be how well its 
seniors performed key functions within the school. A senior 
would act as head secretary. 

Most people tell Meeker he's crazy when he suggests this. 
But think about it. 

"What are you telling industry when you won't trust one of 
your seniors to do a job for which you have given them an aca- 
demic degree? You give someone a business degree and say 
they are ready for the work world, but you don't really mean 
it." 

SOI and others are working to change all that. With a task 
that big in front of them, you can bet they're grateful for com- 
puters. 

* * * 

Mary Meeker is an educational psychologist who studied 
with J. P. Guilford in the early sixties. She later worked at 
Loyola University of Los Angeles as a professor, where she be- 
gan to form the SOI Institute from Guilford's theoretical 
model. In 1974, the SOI program outgrew facilities at Loyola, 
so it incorporated and moved to El Segundo, California. 

Mary Meeker had been practicing psychology out of her 
home, and Robert Meeker was mystified by her intuitive ap- 
proach to the problems of young schoolchildren. Aware of the 
complexity of psychology and personality, Robert felt there 
had to be a way to quantify a method of analysis objectively. 

Using the SOI model, the Meekers eventually developed a 
system of objective tests. Mary's intuitive insight and practi- 
cal experience combined with Robert's background in compu- 
ters to produce the tests, computer diagnoses, and remedial 
curriculum that now constitute the SOI program. 






You are Snoggle, fleeing through a maze of 
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1 * You are the space 

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16K cassette - $19.95 



Brtfclerbund Software *2 Vista Wood Way, Son Rafael, California, 94901 (415)456-6424 




Oo-Topos ?Wie' first an 
adventure program writte 
directly for Microcomputers 
by a science fiction writer. 
Alow, Michael Berlyn, author 
of Crystal Phoenix and 
Integrated Man transports 
* you to the truly distant, alien 
world of Qo-Topos. It's an 
original science f ic t ion tale ' 
programmed for adventure; 
See your local software 
dealer and discover Oo-Topos. 
Requires DOS 3.3 Applesoft''" in ROM 

| From 

SENTIENT SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 4929, Aspen, Colorado 81612 
(303)925-9293 

©1981 by Sentient Software, Inc. 



"...deserves a top spot 
in the realm 
of adventuring." 

■?**$oftalk Magazine 

Exclusively distributed by 



8295 S. La Cienega Blvd. 
Inglewood, CA 90301 
(800) 421-5770 
In CA (800) 262-4242 

-"-Applesoft is a registered trademark 
of Apple Com 



OCTOBER 1981 



mm 



39 



■ If 


ran 


* *rai 










□ Nasir Gebelli, author of several best- 
selling hi-res arcade games, has formed 
his own company. Gebelli Software, Inc., 
is located in Sacramento, California, and 
specializes in entertainment software for 
the Apple and Atari. Nasir 's first game 
on his own, Firebird, was released Octo- 
ber 1, and Nasir promises many more to 
follow. 

□ It's been three years since Southwest- 
ern Data Systems (Santee, CA) opened 
its doors, and they finally got around to 
throwing the first in a series of anniver- 
sary parties. This kickoff event at Mis- 
sion Bay included sailing, jet skiing, and 
a lot of reminiscing. The night ended with 
owner Roger Wagner playing the guitar. 
According to office manager Tom Burns, 
his boss "crooned to the moon" for more 
than four hours. The fact that most peo- 
ple remained till Wagner finished "indi- 
cates that he's pretty good," said Burns, 
a loyal employee. And we all thought 
Roger only knew assembly language. 

□ Softsel, formerly of Marina Del Rey, 
CA, has moved to bigger quarters at 8295 
South La Cienega Boulevard, Inglewood, 
CA. Phone (213) 670-9461. 

□ Daniel S. Bricklin, executive vice- 
president of Software Arts (Cambridge, 
MA) is to be awarded the 1981 Grace 
Murray Hooper Award at the Associa- 
tion for Computing Machinery's annual 
conference November 9, 1981, in Los An- 
geles. The award, given in recognition of 
computing achievements made by per- 
sons before their thirtieth birthdays, hon- 
ors Bricklin for "his contributions to per- 
sonal computing and in particular to the 
design of VisiCalc." He conceived the vis- 
ual calculator idea while attending Har- 
vard Business School, where he received 
the M.B.A. in 1979. The actual program 
was written by Robert Frankston, now 
Software Arts president. 

□ Larry Bane has been appointed gen- 
eral manager at On-Line Systems 
(Coarsegold, CA). Formerly production 
manager for the firm, Bane has also 
served in the Los Angeles construction in- 
dustry and was county field supervisor 
for Roto-Rooter for ten years. 

□ Apple Computer (Cupertino, CA) is 
distributing Micro-Courier and Micro- 
Telegram, manufactured by Microcom 
(Boston, MA). Micro-Courier is an elec- 
tronic mail package; Micro-Telegram 
connects Apples with Western Union to 
send or receive TWX, Telex, and mail- 
grams. 

□ Epson America, maker of the MX se- 
ries of printers, is expanding its adminis- 
trative headquarters to a facility triple its 



former size. New address is 3415 Kashi- 
wa Street, Torrance, CA. Shipping, re- 
ceiving, traffic, and technical service de- 
partments can still be found at the com- 
pany's Hawthorne Boulevard address. 

□ Donald Brown's Swordthrust game 
(CE Software, Des Moines, IA) held the 
distinction of being the only computer- 
ized fantasy roleplaying tournament 
game at Worldcon, the world science fic- 
tion convention held last month in Den- 
ver, Colorado. "I suspect people enjoyed 
it," said Brown. "I have outdone myself 
in evilness, wickedness, and underhand- 
edness in designing the dungeon." 

□ The world semiconductor market will 
reach $74 billion by 1990 — a 23 percent per 
year growth rate during each of the next 
nine years — according to Dr. Julius 
Muray, a staff scientist at SRI Interna- 
tional's engineering sciences laboratory. 
Muray is launching an in-depth program 
to study the microelectronics industry — 
its technology and trends — with empha- 
sis on how these changes may affect 
semiconductor manufacturers and their 
customers. Designers, manufacturers, 
and production equipment users will par- 
ticipate in the program. Further infor- 
mation can be obtained from Dr. Julius 
Muray at SRI International, 333 Ravens- 
wood Avenue, Menlo Park, California. 

□ Orange Micro has signed on with 
Estey-Hoover Advertising and Public 
Relations. While directing part of Or- 
ange Micro's media advertising budget 
of approximately $300,000 toward news- 
paper, business, and trade publications, 
Estey-Hoover also plans new collateral 
materials, trade show activities, and 
public relations services. Orange Micro 
is a national mail-order firm with retail 
outlets in Anaheim and Sherman Oaks, 
California, and other store coming on line 
in San Jose, California. 

□ "Micro Magic" is a new TV program 
designed to familiarize the American 
public with concepts, use, and availabil- 
ity of personal microcomputers. Both 
business and entertainment applications 
will be explored on the thirty-minute 
weekly show for major cable and satel- 
lite networks, with additional distribu- 
tion through selected UHF stations in 
major markets — potential viewing au- 
dience more than eight million. Each 
program will be composed of two twelve- 
minute guest appearances and twelve 
thirty-second commercial spots, with 
Robert Chesney of Chesney Communi- 
cations and William V. R. Smith of Artsci 
Inc. acting as co-hosts. First "Micro 
Magic" will air in mid-November. For 



program guide or other information, con- 
tact William V. R. Smith at Chesney 
Communications in Hollywood, Califor- 
nia. 

□ Sofprotex (Belmont, CA) , a new Gov- 
ernment Copyright Services division, has 
released a report on computer software 
copyrighting. A company spokesperson 
said, "Major corporations are finding 
themselves involved in litigation over 
computer crime at an alarming rate of 
increase. . . . With new legal decisions 
such as the recent ruling on patents in- 
volving software, and the general lack of 
available information, we feel this re- 
port will . . . become a necessary addi- 
tion to the library of anyone supported by 
software development." $25 at various 
outlets, or order from the publisher at 
Softprotex, Belmont. 

□ Dave Gordon, founder and former 
president of Programma International, 
has established a new firm, Datamost, a 
support house for Apple software and 




RBSOIUTE 
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(714) 747-5041 DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



40 



1 WHTA1 If 



OCTOBER 1981 



books. Among the products Datamost 
will handle are Write-On word proces- 
sor; arcade games Thief and Smack At- 
tack; Expand-a-Port expansion switch 
system for multiple paddle and joystick 
games; and Randy Hyde's book, Using 
6502 Assembly Language. Datamost is lo- 
cated at 19273 Kenya Street, Northridge, 
California. 

□ Integral Data Systems (Natick, MA) 
has cut the price of its eighty-column 
model 460 Paper Tiger from $1,295 to 
$995; the model 460 with graphics has 
been reduced from $1,394 to $1,094. The 
company's 132-column model 560 is down 
from $1,695 to $1,394. Peter Eisenhauer, 



vice-president of marketing, says the 
price reductions were part of a program 
to position Integral Data as a leading sup- 
plier of microcomputer printers. 

□ Queue (Fairfield, CT) distributes the 
Library Skills, English Skills, and Ver- 
bal Skills Improvement packages by 
Right On Programs (Huntington, NY). 
Software is designed to strengthen com- 
munication abilities in first through sixth 
graders. 

□ Software publishers and other produc- 
ers of microcomputer merchandise are 
invited to participate in Irv Brechner En- 
terprises' cooperative mailing of new 
product news and literature. Brechner is 



SUPER-TEXT 




ADVAN 
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□ split screen for editing large 
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□ Math Mode for preparing 
statistical reports 

□ Optional file linking for gloPal 
search and print operations 

□ Preview Mode formats line 
endings and page breaks on 
screen before printing 

□ Form letter generation and 
mailing list management 
add-on modules 
...and much more 




MCSt 



Super-Text is the word 
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OF USE 

□ single key cursor control 

□ automatic word overflow 

□ automatic paragraph 
indentation 

□ automatic on-screen tabbing 

□ block copy, save and delete 

□ tutorial manual and handy 
reference card 

dual disk copy program for 
file backup 
and much more 




Add the Form Letter 
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From the leader in quality software... 

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For the Apple II or Apple II Plus (48K) 1 •'• 1 ! ' '<'■'' i ■ - ' SOFTWARE 



Apple is a trademark ol Apple Computer Corp 

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mailing samples and brochures to about 
eight hundred authorized Apple dealers 
this month; and for a minimum of $100, 
companies with products for Apple own- 
ers can still reserve space. Brechner 
asks that companies ship one thousand 
copies of the product or pamphlet to Irv 
Brechner Enterprises, Livingston, New 
Jersey. Fees can be determined by tele- 
phone inquiry: (201) 731-4382. 

□ High Technology Software Products 
(Oklahoma City, OK), publisher of In- 
formation Master and Transit, has au- 
thorized Bell-ITT's Belgium affiliate, 
which distributes Apple computers in 
Benelux, to translate its software user 
manuals into foreign languages. High 
Technology president Charles Wedding- 
ton says that, although many European 
Apple owners speak English and have 
used High Technology programs suc- 
cessfully, there is significant benefit in 
having the user manuals in native lan- 
guages. 

□ "Distributed Processing Update: A 
Management Seminar" will be held No- 
vember 9 through 11 at the Westpark Ho- 
tel, McLean, VA. Sponsored by Data- 
Communications magazine, it'll give a 
comprehensive, up-to-date overview of 
tools, techniques, requirements, and 
benefits of distributed processing sys- 
tems, as well as direction in selecting 
hardware and software best suited to 
participants' needs. Registration fee, 
$650. For more information, contact Mc- 
Graw-Hill Conference Center, 1221 Ave- 
nue of the Americas, New York, NY. 

□ Nelson B. Heller has been named di- 
rector of research for SFN Companies 
(Chicago, IL), a diversified publishing 
company. Dr. Heller was formerly presi- 
dent of Educational Programming Sys- 
tems, a Saint Louis publisher of com- 
puter software products. His new posi- 
tion will be as a corporate-wide resource 
person in electronic publishing for SFN 
headquarters and its operating compa- 
nies. Computer and television based in- 
structional formats and data based pub- 
lishing offers a lot of opportunity, notes 
Heller. "It's an area most publishing 
companies are now taking every se- 
riously." 

□ SSM Microcomputers (San Jose, CA) 
has announced that Crane and Egert Cor- 
poration of Elmont, NY, is now a stock- 
ing distributor for their products. SSM 
says the agreement points to a new mar- 
keting direction because of C&E's con- 
nection with the industrial community. 
SSM will continue to sell their products to 
original equipment manufacturers di- 
rectly and to end users through compu- 
ter retailers. Other news around SSM: 
David J. Wertzberger, director of mar- 
keting and sales, co-chaired a major 
technical session last month at Wes- 
con/81 in San Francisco titled "Micro- 
computer Bus Structures— What the Fu- 
ture Holds." m 





of** 



j&f« 



as 



MS?**** 




.066^- 



IP- 



3^' 



\ 6 S^* 6 0606 



'Trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 



© 



BV MELISSA MILICU 

My goal is to break the interspecies communication barrier 

with microprocessors and minicomputers. 

John Lilly, M.D., biochemist, engineer, inventor, 
philosopher, author, and dolphin researcher 

The water was dark and deep, and the young girl was not 
alone. There was a lot to be scared of and nothing to be scared 
of. Suddenly a gray head surfaced without making a ripple, 
then a large brown eye, then a smiling beak. She reached out 
and stroked four hundred pounds of weight, and she knew it 
would not hurt her. 

"Grab its fin! Grab its fin!" yelled some faraway voices 
from land. 

The dorsal fin of a dolphin resembles that of a shark, but 
when a human grabs onto the dorsal fin of a friendly dolphin, 
she may get the ride of her life. 

Joe, a two-year-old Tursiops truncatus (bottle-nosed dol- 
phin), was determined to make it a wild one. He and the girl 
shot through the underwater at a speed only a dolphin would 
know. His fellow tursiops, Rosalie, swam alongside and sand- 
wiched the girl in. They could crush her, bite her, or drown her, 
but the oversized fishlike creatures chose to play with her. 

And she could tell they had plans. They whistled and clicked 
back and forth and occasionally glanced back at their passen- 
ger. There was a conversation going — gossip, no less. She 
couldn't understand a word of it. But a relationship was estab- 
lished, and dolphins and human continued to dive, leap, and roll 
in an undersea world, their world. 

After forty-five minutes, choking on all the salt water she 
had swallowed, she tried to leave the tank. But Rosalie fol- 
lowed her to the side and grabbed the girl's arm in her mouth. 
The dolphin pulled but did not bite. 

"She doesn't want you to leave," said one of the research- 
ers sympathetically. "No one's swum with them all day." 

Mutual Admiration Society. The dolphin is the only crea- 
ture "that loves man for his own sake" observed the Roman 
philosopher Plutarch nineteen hundred years ago. Aristotle, 
likewise, noted the beauty and wonder of porpoises during the 
early millenium. In 1981 A.D., at the Human/Dolphin Founda- 
tion in Redwood City, California, scientists are trying to com- 
municate with dolphins via computers. Here, in one man, live 



and work a modern-day Plutarch, a modern-day Aristotle, and 
a modern-day controversy. 

Dr. John Cunningham Lilly, at sixty-eight, has done 
more than many could manage in one lifetime: he's been a 
neurophysiologist/biophysicist studying brain sizes, the au- 
thor of several books on mind and psychology, and a distin- 
guished professor at Harvard. But he is remembered most for 
his unconventional work : experimenting with LSD during the 
sixties, under government approval, and inventing the sen- 
sory-isolation tank — both of which projects led to further mind 
research — and trying to talk with dolphins. 

Lilly is the leading authority on dolphins in the scientific 
world, and trying to break the interspecies communication 
barrier takes up most of his time. 

To communicate with dolphins, Lilly believes man must 
first interact with them, and swimming with the dolphins is a 
necessary part of this. But ask the veteran of isolation tanks 
and LSD trips what it was like the first time he jumped into a 
dolphin tank, and Lilly will admit frankly that he was terri- 
fied. 

"I knew their power and strength and what they could po- 
tentially do," he says, his voice trailing off. 

His co-workers call him "essentially, a practical man." In 
the early seventies when NASA embarked on a twenty-mil- 
lion-dollar project to send a brass plaque into outer space to 
communicate with extraterrestrial beings, Lilly was asked to 
participate in the project. Most scientists probably would have 
jumped at the chance. Lilly, however, refused in favor of the 
dolphins. 

"If you won't spend any money to investigate alien intelli- 
gence next door that you can touch and look at, I'm not going to 
spend my time on that," he reportedly told NASA. 

Computer Is Bridge To Span Language Gulf. It was also 
this streak of practicality that lead Lilly to explore the possi- 
bility of using computers with his dolphin research. He began 
his work with interspecies communication in 1957 but found 
that man alone could not keep up with the complexity of the 
dolphin language. Dolphins have several ways to make sounds, 
and some of them use frequencies that are beyond the human 
range of hearing. 

With the advent of minicomputers and microprocessors in 
the mid-seventies, Lilly saw a way to break through the lan- 
guage barrier. Although people by themselves still could not 



OCTOBER 1981 



communicate fast enough, computers could, and Lilly found 
that the dolphins would interact with them. 

"The dolphins' knowledge is much more ancient than 
ours," Lilly said. "Dolphins have had brains the size of ours, 
and larger, for fifteen million years; and we've only had our 
present brain size for the last three hundred thousand years." 

Higher Intelligence Here on Earth? The dolphin brain is, on 
the average, about forty percent larger than the human brain 
and has more convolutions in the fissured neocortex area that 
holds the capacity for language. All this indicates that ceta- 
ceans are extremely intelligent animals. 

As intelligent as humans? Not a chance. Try more intelli- 
gent. 

"I would say yes, but in a very strange and alien way." Lil- 
ly paused for a moment in thought. 

"I never talk about intelligence per se of a given species or 
a given individual," he says, "but the only way intelligence is 
ever measured is by communication." 

Although he spent years dissecting brains in laboratories as 
a neurophysiologist, Lilly says he never makes a judgment of 
intelligence until he talks to a person — or, he hopes in the near 
future, to a dolphin. 

"Intelligence has no meaning outside the operational com- 
municative mode ; but you take a very intelligent human talk- 
ing to a very intelligent dolphin, and they'll have an exchange 
that nobody else will have." And then he smiles slightly as if he 
is keeping a great secret that most human beings wouldn't be 
ready to share. 

Janus Looks to Land and Sea. If Lilly hasn't already real- 
ized his dream, the site of the interspecies communication 
breakthrough will probably be at Marine World Africa USA in 
Redwood City, California, where space has been allotted for 
his research. Just east of the parkway lies a mobile laboratory 
that few tourists ever see. Standing apart from the rest of Ma- 
rine World, it is here that Lilly is trying to learn one of the best- 
kept secrets of the universe. 

The first interspecies communication system, called Proj- 
ect Janus, is made up of two Apple II microcomputers and a 
voice synthesizer hooked to a mainframe PDP 11/04.* Outside 

*Janus has a double meaning in this name. Practically, it stands for Joint 
Analog Numerical Understanding System and, symbolically, it refers to Jan- 
us, the double-faced ancient Roman deity of gates, doorways, and new be- 
ginnings. 



the lab, two bottle-nosed Pacific Ocean dolphins are cavorting 
in a holding tank, waiting for their next session with humans. 

Joe and Rosalie Tursiops truncatus were donated to the 
foundation by Joe and Rosalie Levine, producers of the movie 
Day of the Dolphin, which was based on Lilly's work and 
starred George C. Scott. 

Lilly needed to work with dolphins that were not already 
trained as show animals for amusement parks or Hollywood. 
Joe and Rosalie were caught in the Gulf of Mexico thirteen 
months ago and are approximately two years old. They have 
distinct personalities. Rosalie is much more adventurous and 
outgoing; Joe will usually follow her lead. 

Janus sessions are usually run three times a day. It's mid- 
afternoon and time for the second session. While Joe and Ro- 
salie are fed herring and smelt, chief system programmer 
John Kert is inside the trailer running the controls. 

Declaring Their Presence. What goes on in the small, 
cramped trailer makes a fairly dramatic show. It's a noisy 
place, with the computers whirring, printer cranking out hard 
copy, and fans buzzing. The racket is occasionally punctuated 
by a dolphin's shrill whistle coming through speakers on the 
wall from the tank outside. 

Kert cocks his head toward a dolphin sound. "That's Rosa- 
lie's signature whistle," he explains. "It means, 'I'm Rosalie, 
and I'm here.' " 

To facilitate the communication process, a third language 
was invented that was neither human nor dolphinese. The 
computer acts as a medium between man and dolphin. There 
are currently three programs— Janus I, Janus II, and Janus 
III — being used to communicate with Joe and Rosalie. 

From inside the lab, a researcher controls an Apple key- 
board that, depending upon the program on disk, either pro- 
duces tones inside the tank or projects images on an underwa- 
ter screen the dolphins can watch. 

Janus I produces individual tones, and the dolphins have 
learned to reproduce with their whistles the same number of 
tones put out over the system. Janus II is a very similar pro- 
gram to Janus I, with the tones slightly modulated. 

In Janus III, one or more letters are typed on the keyboard, 
corresponding to a vocabulary that includes words like fish, 
ball, and swim. The sounds that go into the tank via the under- 
water speaker and are transmitted back from the dolphins 
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rial is later graphed into data by a researcher. The computer 
distinguishes between sounds it makes and those of Joe and 
Rosalie, as well as editing out miscellaneous underwater 
sounds. 

Cryptic Conversation on Paper. Sounds are shown as config- 
urations of letters. You can see where the dolphins already 
use some words in appropriate context. Among the biggest 
barriers to interspecies communication are the differences in 
frequency. The high-pitched dolphin whistle is in the range of 
two thousand to four thousand hertz (cycles per second) while 
the average human voice ranges between four hundred and 
three thousand hertz. There is some overlap, but the cetacean 
whistle is usually so high-pitched that humans cannot distin- 
guish the difference in modulation. 

The computer, however, drops- the whistle to a comfort- 
able, easy-listening range for humans. It also differentiates be- 
tween the modulation with the letter symbols on the hard copy. 
Increasing frequency corresponds to increasing order in the al- 
phabet. For example, if the printout reads IJKLMQ, the fre- 
quency is increasing. If this pattern is plotted on a piece of 
paper, the shape of the modulation and the frequency will help 
the scientist determine the meaning of the whistle. 

According to Kert, there have been several instances where 
the dolphins matched their whistle with the tone the computer 
made. They have even lowered their whistle to accommodate 
the frequency of the human range. "But we're still in the 
beginning stages." he says. 

At any rate, Joe and Rosalie are definitely interested in this 
project. They especially like the underwater split screen where 
they can watch themselves on one side while computer output 
from the lab shows on the other. 

"You ought to see them in front of a motion picture cam- 
era — they'll really perform," says Lilly, the corners of his 
mouth turning up slightly. "They'll do all sorts of tricks; they 
love cameras. And if you show them the pictures later, they're 
delighted." 

Only Benevolence in Dolphin Ethics. Lilly believes human 
beings have a lot to learn from the dolphins. Dolphins have a 
code of ethics much higher than our own : they never steal food 
from other dolphins; they don't have wars; and they're ex- 
tremely benevolent to humans. Many cases have been record- 
ed of humans who would have drowned had they not been 
pulled safely to shore by dolphins. 

As a medical doctor, Lilly is interested in the dolphin's abil- 
ity to cope with stress. In a high-pressure situation — such as 
the time Joe and Rosalie were caught and then flown from 
Mexico to San Francisco — they have an amazing capacity to 
calm down. Their heart rate slows and their blood pressure 
drops. Humans in stressful situations tend to have just the op- 
posite bodily reactions : the fight or flight reaction and an in- 
ability to cope with stress that doctors now believe causes 
many of our chronic diseases. 

The dolphins' intelligence keeps them alive, notes Lilly. It's 
used for their survival: mapping the bottom and surface of the 
ocean, learning about storms and what they do, knowing when 
to surface, traveling, surfing on wave fronts, passing on knowl- 
edge of the history of the earth from older to younger dolphins, 
and learning how to relate to various other species, including 
man. 

"So I think they volunteer to be captured, and, hoping 
they'll be put back in the ocean, they get gossip from the land 
about humans," Lilly hypothesizes. In his book, Communica- 
tion Beyond Man and Dolphin, Lilly proposes an oceanarium 
through which whales and dolphins will rotate. The oceanar- 
ium will be hooked up with satellites on sea buoys so the dol- 
phins in captivity can communicate with those in the wild. 
When the communication devices become that sophisticated, 
he says, humans will also be able to talk to cetaceans in this 
network via telephones. 

"But we'll send the dolphins and whales back to the wild af- 
ter a year, and we'll take only volunteers," Lilly emphasized. 

An End to Being Alone. "The most important thing in our 
work," according to Victor di Suvero, a member of the Hu- 



OCTOBER 1981 



45 



man/Dolphin Foundation board of trustees, "is the explora- 
tion of the possibility that the loneliness of man could finally be 
broken. 

"We may have finally found somebody else to talk to that's 
been around for a long time. In the context of the age of the uni- 
verse, we're kids, and we may have found a big brother." 




The human/dolphin researchers follow the teachings of the 
nineteenth-century French educator Piaget: expect more 
from the child, and you will elicit more. Ed Ellsworth, a part- 
time volunteer with the foundation and a research psychology 
graduate student at San Francisco State University says dol- 
phins cannot be trained in the usual research-oriented way. 

"You can't train them like laboratory rats. You can try to 
do it, but, depending upon the dolphin, they usually won't co- 
operate," he says. "They get bored very easily. And that's an 
indication of intelligence to me." 

The Human/Dolphin Foundation is totally supported by 
public funds. Approximately thirty thousand dollars a month is 
needed to keep the dolphins fed, the computers running, and 
some of the staff paid. The money is raised through benefit 



concerts, from royalties on Lilly's books, and, occasionally, 
from some large donations. 

Apple and Jobs Take an Interest. About a year ago, Steve 
Jobs, one of the founders of Apple Computer, saw an interview 
in a local newspaper with John Lilly and noticed in an accom- 
panying photograph the corner of one of his Apple computers. 
His curiosity aroused, he contacted Lilly and found that 
their Apple was indeed very significant to the project. In fact, 
they liked it so well, they wanted another. 

That was an easy enough request for Jobs to grant, but Lil- 
ly also suggested that a smaller, more compact computer, 
which could be strapped to a human and taken into the water, 
would speed along their research. This watertight prototype is 
still in Lilly's imagination, but Lilly and his dolphins hope Ap- 
ple or other researchers will soon decide to tackle the project. 

Kert is especially excited about the possibility of his crew 
interacting in the water with the dolphins and having the com- 
puter there to translate the conversation in real time. In the 
meantime, the researchers are doing everything possible to re- 
duce the interface. 

Meeting on Equal Turf— uh, Water. Shallow water— a nine- 
teen-inch depth— is an ideal environment to produce bonds, 
since the mobility and freedom of human and dolphins would 
be equalized. For the past ten months, the researchers have 
been trying to get Joe and Rosalie to enter voluntarily a shal- 
low-water channel that connects to their deep-water tank. Dol- 
phins, however, have a natural fear of going into shallow 
water, where their swimming capacities are impaired greatly. 

To reduce the interface, a movable floor was built for the 
main tank. Raising the floor can lower the depth of the water in 
the tank to three feet— which is better but still not quite as good 
as getting the dolphins into the channel. 

"What would really excite me is having Joe and Rosalie 
swim into the channel by themselves," Kert says wistfully. "I 
know it doesn't sound like a big breakthrough, but communi- 
cation would probably move along so much more rapidly if we 
could get them in there." 

So, every day, the researchers devoted a certain time pe- 






46 



OCTOBER 1981 




riod training Joe and Rosalie to go into the channel, with the 
hope that the dolphins will eventually feel comfortable enough 
to enter on their own. They raised the floor to the three-foot- 
deep level; then the researchers used either a net or rubber 
bats to lead the dolphins into the channel. Once they got them 
inside, trainer Tom Fitz blew the whistle around his neck, a 
sign of approval for the dolphins. As soon as they were let out, 
Joe and Rosalie were rewarded with fish. But still they would 
not venture into the channel without a lot of prodding. 

It is now late afternoon. The researchers, tired after a full 
day's work, are huddled together in a group at the far end of 
the tank discussing tomorrow's research plans. Lilly has left to 
lecture in Hawaii, Florida, or heaven- knows- where. Dolphins 
and humans are ignoring each other for the time being. Kert 
and his crew are embroiled deeply in their research plans, 
while Joe and Rosalie are playing with a deflated innertube. 

But the innertube floats away from the dolphins and drifts 



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into the channel. Chattering madly, Rosalie races after it; Joe 
hesitates briefly, then follows. 

Ellsworth is the first to notice. He points but is too sur- 
prised to shout out more than "Hey!" 

The rest of the dolphin researchers finally see what they've 
been waiting nine months for. They start shouting and clap- 
ping wildly as the dolphins turn around and swim back to the 
safety of the deeper tank. 

A Breakthrough Acknowledged — by Joe. But Joe and Rosa- 
lie seem to be mindful of the excitement. This time Joe grabs 
the innertube, almost like a security blanket, and swims 
straight into the channel — Rosalie not far behind. Now even 
dignified John Kert is jumping up and down and clapping 
wildly at, finally, a major breakthrough. 

And if John Lilly could have been there, no doubt the cor- 
ners of his mouth would have turned up slightly — but he might 
not have been too surprised. 

He probably told the dolphins to do it. 

Dolphins Seek Programmers 

The only way we might break through is to give the dol- 
phins the benefit of our technology, says Dr. John Lilly; and 
the first place to start is with computer games. 

The Human/Dolphin Foundation is now seeking people to 
develop new software for the dolphins — software that would be 
similar or analogous to the games humans play, complete with 
graphics. Programmer John Kert says that, since they are us- 
ing Apples extensively, anything written for the Apple could 
probably be used; and it doesn't have to be anything too so- 
phisticated, he adds. 

In detail, Lilly explains that "what we'd like to have is a 
program that could recognize these inputs and allow the dol- 
phins to select new programs already stored in the computer. 
They could be asked questions, be shown diagrams on the 
monitor, and put back sounds that could symbolize the game." 

The first game should be one that would teach the dolphins 
the language of the computer and the language of the game. 
This should be rather simple and very direct ; the instant the 
dolphin matches the given computer output, the game should 
start. When the dolphin matches the output again, the game 
should continue and show the dolphins the next steps. 

"So it's a computer-aided instruction (CAI) program that's 
needed," says Lilly — "a multiple subset program for the vari- 
ous games." 

Adds Kert, "It would also be nice if some people could come 
out with games for human players that involve dolphins and 
whales and creative ways to interact with them, either through 
sounds or situations, analogous to space games. People would 
then become more conscious of cetaceans. 

Kert, who was in the aerospace industry for twelve years 
before he joined the Human/Dolphin Foundation, had to learn 
some new computer languages to make the transition to work- 
ing with cetaceans. Most scientists, he says, use Fortran, but 
assembly language is used on the Janus system. And, of 
course, the Janus language also had to be invented. 

Kert says he got a lot of help from the other programmers 
on the staff: Dennis Kesner and Larry Marchman, who 
worked extensively on graphics analysis, and David Kusek, 
John Gard, and John James. 

"All the software, all the computer programs, is a beauti- 
ful analogy for our own thinking and a powerful analogy that 
more, and more people are beginning to understand," says Lil- 
ly. "My brain is my computer, my biocomputer; and myself 
and what I say and think are all software, generated by my 
brain." 

The concept of a biocomputer being the hardware for hu- 
man and dolphin software is extremely useful, according to 
Lilly. If we can tap into that intelligence, we might solve some 
of the problems of the human race ourselves. JB 



E.D.E. 



OCTOBER 1981 



WUTAI u § 



47 




from page 6 

nearly a full-service distributor of software, now handling ap- 
proximately fifty lines of software serving Atari, Pet, and 
TRS-80 as well as Apple, although Apple remains the bulk of 
their business. 

In Softsel They Trust — with Good Reason. The method by 
which new product lines are added reflects the care with which 
Leff and Wagman treat their business. They refuse to add any 
line they cannot conscientiously recommend to their dealers. 
Because they've been so adamant on this point in the past, and 
because the dealers have come to depend on Softsel as a source 
of reliable information about new software in the market- 
place, this policy has placed additional burdens on the now suc- 
cessful company. 

Both Leff and Wagman spend substantial portions of their 
day evaluating new product lines. No line is accepted unless 
there's a consensus that they can recommend the products. 

Leff sees Softsel almost as more of a consultant than a dis- 
tributor. "We're a service company. It's harder to distribute 
software than hardware, because there's always so much new 
product being developed. It takes a 120 percent commitment 
on all our parts to keep current with the market. We're looking 
for software that makes a contribution." 

Wagman points out another facet of the problem. "We've 
steered the retailers right so many times, they've come to trust 
us. We could probably get away with sending them something 
not as good. This means we have to look doubly hard at new 
product now, so we don't soil our reputation by going after a 
fast buck." 



Leff adds, "The bigger we get, the more careful we have to 
be." 

Being careful extends not just to product, but also to hiring. 
When the company decided to add a sales and marketing 
executive, they searched for weeks. Among the sources they 
contacted for advice was David Blumstein, a fourteen-year 
sales veteran who had worked with Leff at Informatics. 

As the qualifications and responsibilities of this new addi- 
tion crystallized, it became apparent that they had just about 
defined Blumstein's experience and abilities. Today, he's 
executive vice-president of sales and marketing, honchoing a 
staff of seven. 

The Bigger They Get, the Harder They Try. Leff insists that 
he'd rather do a job himself, even if it gets only 75 percent 
done, than turn it over to unqualified personnel. This is in con- 
cert with his insistence that bigness in Softsel's case will never 
result in deterioration of service. 

"We're not going to get too big. We're going to get better." 

Wagman ratifies that thought by pointing to Softsel's im- 
proved discount policies for their customers. "When we were 
just starting out, there was no way we could offer the kinds of 
margins to our dealers that we do now. It's our volume that en- 
ables us to share our success with the dealers." 

The effect that Softsel has on the end user is indirect but dy- 
namic. Softsel's customers are able to order a wider variety of 
software and get it delivered fast. Leff tells the story of a new 
dealer who ordered three hundred seventeen different items 
from Softsel. "Other than orders for product that has not yet 
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What this means is that dealers can spread their software 
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get rapid replacement from Softsel. The result is more soft- 
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WHTAI I 



OCTOBER 1981 




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Softsel moves in the directions pointed out by their customers. 
Many of the lines they've picked up were at the urging of their 
customers. At present, Wagman is putting the finishing 
touches on a program that will give each dealer a quarterly in- 
ventory analysis and profit report on all product he ordered 
from Softsel. 

Blumstein is architecting a pilot program whereby Softsel 
representatives will make store visits in southern California to 
help stock shelves and keep inventory current. If the pilot is 
successful, the concept may be exported to other areas of the 
country. 

It isn't only dealers who benefit from the expertise col- 
lected at Softsel by Leff and Wagman. On occasion, they'll 
take a new software publisher under their wing by striking an 
exclusive distribution deal. 

While profit is clearly a motive, such deals aren't being 
struck for the venal purpose of controlling the publisher or ex- 
cluding other meritorious distributors. 

Rather, Wagman's found that "oftentimes we run across 
companies that aren't too sure whether they want to be authors 
or publishers." During Softsel's exclusive distribution agree- 
ment, such companies get the opportunity to assess their 
stance correctly vis a vis the marketplace while remaining vi- 
able economically. 

Because Softsel is one of the companies that get early pre- 
views of what's coming down the pipeline, its execs are in a 
better position than most to judge where the software market 
may be going. 

Leff sees software changes as more "evolutionary than 
revolutionary," although he cites Retro Ball from Sierra Soft- 
ware as a revolutionary product because of its hardware piece 
that speeds and smooths Apple's animated graphics. For the 
most part, he sees the advances coming in programming tech- 
nique rather than content and suspects that arcade games im- 
bedded within adventure games may represent the next wave 
of popular software. 

Future Means More Applications and Smarter Apples. He 
sees the market becoming applications-oriented: "For every 
new personal computer owner who masters Basic, there's a 
dozen who don't have the drive to learn programming lan- 
guages." 

Blumstein feels that the software is still following where the 
hardware leads, although he foresees such developments as 
microcomputerized new homes in the near future that will 
open new horizons both to home buyers and to software de- 
velopers. 

Wagman concurs with Blumstein, pointing out that while it 
was possible to program an excellent chess game years ago — 
"After all, the game itself hasn't changed in hundreds of 
years"— it took more powerful hardware to enable the soft- 
ware to reach its potential. 

In that context, he looks for hardware advances to make 
possible extraordinary leaps in the area of artificial intelli- 
gence and man-machine interfaces. 

"We already know how to program things that the hard- 
ware's not capable of handling. We can write artificial intelli- 
gence programs that contain a million branches from one 
word; the hardware just can't cope with that requirement." 

Where will the future find Softsel? Wagman thinks the fu- 
ture is clear for the next three to five years. "We'll be support- 
ing the traditional retailer in the best manner we can." Leff 
gives a different focus to the future : "Where there's a need felt 
by the consumer and a desire on the part of the retailer to ser- 
vice that need, Softsel will be there." 

The Ensuing Adventures of the Original Owner. Softsel's 
daily payroll today exceeds the price that Leff paid for the 
company less than two years ago. So what about that adven- 
ture programmer who started it all? Has he faded into the 
same blessed obscurity that cloaks the seller of John Henry, 
the two-million-dollar horse, for eleven hundred dollars? 

Not exactly. Today he's ensconced in Coarsegold, Califor- 
nia, where he directs one of the largest purveyors of Apple soft- 
ware. His name? Ken Williams. 



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We at Level-10 have been searching tor the Alkemstone but we need your help. 

All of the clues are contained in the Level-10 Alkemstone game. , 
You decipher them and discover where the stone is hiding, and we will reward you with $5,000. 
And here's your first clue: see your nearest Apple dealer. 




A Gi\ ;SlON OF 0AKIN5 CORPORATION 
P.G 80x21187 • Denver. CO 80221 .(3031426-6090 



Level- 19 is 3 trademark ot IXikinS'Cetrp. 
\j>yie i* ji trademark of Apple Computer It 



Alkemstone is a trademark of Level- lift 
This otter void where prohibited by law. 



50 



ft SO ETUI If 



OCTOBER 1981 



VENTURES WITH 
VISICALC — 



BY (fcAIC Vinson 



This month's column starts with a bit 
of bad news. We have received a letter 
from M. R. Yeargin, of Fort Madison, 
Iowa, reporting a serious bug in the DOS 
3.3 version of VisiCalc. The problem has 
to do with the storage of DIF files. Here's 
an excerpt from Mr. Yeargin's letter: 
After spending many hours in file 
design, format design, and data entry 
we began using the new VisiCalc soft- 
ware. It is at this point we began ex- 
periencing problems with lost files and 
data being over- written. I spent sev- 
eral hours working on rebuilding the 
catalog and VTOC trying to recover as 
many files as I could. I then called 
Personal Software; the representa- 
tive I talked with insisted that I had 
hardware problems. After several 



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VISICALC IS A TRADE IWU OF PERSONAL SOFTWARE INC 



minutes of discussion, and my insis- 
tence that I did not have hardware 
problems, [Personal's] representative 
finally admitted that some problems 
did exist. The nature of the problems 
was that you could not store more than 
seven (7) DIF files on a disk. If you 
stored more than seven (7) files you 
would experience the problem I was 
describing. 

Upon receiving this letter, we did a lit- 
tle experimentation and managed to 
crash a disk catalog with five large DIF 
files. 

Personal has assured us that the prob- 
lem has been diagnosed and solved, and 
that by the time this issue of Softalk is 
printed they will have begun shipping 
corrected product. Those who had the 
thirteen-sector version of VisiCalc and 
who have bought the upgrade to DOS 3.3 
will be entitled to a patch at no charge. 
Those whose first VisiCalc was a flawed 
sixteen-sector model, and who have sent 
in warranty cards, will be notified by 
mail of the problem and given the 
privilege of paying an additional $15 for 
the corrected item. 

In the meantime, it's user beware. If 
your application requires DIF files, be 
cautious about how many you put on a 
disk, and back them up. If you're buying a 
new VisiCalc, make sure the product ar- 
rived on your dealer's shelf sometime af- 
ter mid-September. 

Bad news aside now, we turn to re- 
views of two more VisiCalc adjuncts— the 
Real Estate Templates, from Apple's 
Special Delivery catalog, and a work- 
sheet manipulating utility called VU#3, 
from Progressive Software. 

The Real Estate Templates, written 
by J. Michael Carlisle, come on two disks 
in Muffinable DOS 3.2. They were in- 
tended to run with thirteen-sector Visi- 
Calc, although if you have 3.3 and a lan- 
guage system (or some other source of 
an additional 16K), they'll do just fine in 
3.3 as well. Without a 64K Apple, you 
won't be able to use about half of the 
templates because they're too large and 
complex to share quarters with the more 
RAM-consuming version of VisiCalc. 

The templates were created by a real 
estate professional, primarily for others 
in the business or for investors in need of 



tools for evaluating and managing in- 
come property. They do not, however, 
require any computer sophistication or 
familiarity with VisiCalc. All are sump- 
tuously prompted and documented. 

The models all use an over-and-under 
split-screen format. The top part of the 
screen is used for instructions and data 
input; calculated results are displayed 
below. 

With one exception, the display areas 
all fit into eight nine-unit columns so they 
can be printed on an eighty-column 
printer. The formats are designed to pro- 
duce neat printed reports, complete with 
borders, centered heads, and orderly 
tabulation. 

Areas to the right of the eight-column 
display zone are reserved for numbers 
and formulas essential to the calcula- 
tions. These values are provided by the 
author. 

The templates cover a range of com- 
plexity from a simple monthly amortiza- 
tion calculator to an investment analysis 
worksheet that allows for three mort- 
gages and fourteen income categories. 
Here's what you get: 

On the monthly amortization calcu- 
lator, you input five of six variables : pur- 
chase price, percent down payment, an- 
nual percentage rate, term of loan, 
monthly payment, and balloon payment. 
Hit an exclamation point and the pro- 
gram calculates the unspecified vari- 
able. 

A monthly amortization schedule 
template requires input of purchase 
price, down payment, annual per- 
centage rate, term, and balloon pay- 
ment; it then calculates a detailed sched- 
ule for the first thirty-six months of the 
loan. For each month, the schedule lists 
principal balance, monthly principal 
payment, monthly interest payment, and 
totals of principal and interest paid to 
date. 

The annual amortization schedule 
produces the same information as the 
monthly schedule but breaks it down on a 
yearly basis for the first thirty-one years 
of a loan. The template assumes the loan 
to be amortized on a monthly basis and 
prints the values obtained at the end of 
each calendar or fiscal year. You specify 
the month in which the loan is made, 



Turn your Apple into the world's 
most versatile personal computer. 



The SoftCard™ Solution. SoftCard 
turns your Apple into two computers. 
A Z-80 and a 6502. By adding a Z-80 
microprocessor and CP/M to your 
Apple, SoftCard turns your Apple into 
a CP/M based machine. That means 
you can access the single largest body 
of microcomputer software in exist- 
ence. Two computers in one. And, the 
advantages of both. 

Plug and go. The SoftCard system 
starts with a Z-80 based circuit card. 
Just plug it into any slot (except 0) of 
your Apple. No modifications required. 
SoftCard supports most of your Apple 
peripherals, and, in 6502-mode, your 
Apple is still your Apple. 

CP/M for your Apple. You get CP/M 
on disk with the SoftCard package. It's 
a powerful and simple-to-use operating 
system. It supports more software 
than any other microcomputer operat- 
ing system. And that's the key to the 
versatility of the SoftCard/Apple. 



BASIC included. A powerful tool, 
BASIC-80 is included in the SoftCard 
package. Running under CP/M, ANSI 
Standard BASIC-80 is the most 
powerful microcomputer BASIC 
available. It includes extensive disk I/O 
statements, error trapping, integer 
variables, 16-digit precision, exten- 
sive EDIT commands and string func- 
tions, high and low-res Apple graphics, 
PRINT USING, CHAIN and COM- 
MON, plus many additional com- 
mands. And, it's a BASIC you can 
compile with Microsoft's BASIC 
Compiler. 

More languages. With SoftCard and 
CP/M, you can add Microsoft's ANSI 
Standard COBOL, and FORTRAN, or 



Basic Compiler and Assembly Lan- 
guage Development System. All, more 
powerful tools for your Apple. 
Seeing is believing. See the SoftCard 
in operation at your Microsoft or Apple 
dealer. We think you'll agree that the 
SoftCard turns your Apple into the 
world's most versatile personal 
computer. 

Complete information? It's at your 
dealer's now. Or, we'll send it to you 
and include a dealer list. Write us. Call 
us. 

SoftCard is a trademark of Microsoft. Apple II and 
Apple II Plus are registered trademarks of Apple 
Computer. Z-80 is a registered trademark of Zilog. 
Inc CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital 
Research, Inc. 




Microsoft Consumer Products, 400 108th Ave. N.E., 
Bellevue, WA 98004. (206) 454-1315 



S39.9S 



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Add 52.50 U.S./S10.00 Foreign for shipping • Calif, residents add 6% sales tax. 



OCTOBER 1981 



W)t I A I If 



53 



relative to the beginning of the fiscal 
year. For example, if your fiscal year 
starts in July and the date of the note is 
April l t you enter 10 for starting month 
and the template will pro-rate the first 
year. 

With the mortgage loan analysis 
template, you can enter specifications for 
up to five mortgages and get a portfolio 
analysis for any point in time falling 
within the terms of the five mortgages. 
The acquisition dates can be after the 
dates the mortgages are made, allowing 
for the case where an existing mortgage 
is assumed. The summary report tabu- 
lates such things as the value of the debt 
at the analysis date, the amount of princi- 
pal and interest paid since acquisition 
and during the twelve months prior to the 
analysis date, and the mortgage con- 
stant. With a flick of the finger and a 
press of the exclamation point, you can 
get a preview of your financial position at 
any time during the terms of the mort- 
gages. 

A comparative depreciation schedule 
template displays depreciated values ac- 
cording to straight-line, declining-bal- 
ance, and sum-of-the-years-digits 
methods. Figures for all three methods 
are shown side by side in a yearly table 
that shows annual depreciation and re- 
maining value for up to thirty years. You 
specify the starting and salvage values, 
the depreciable life of the property, and 
the percentage rate for the declining-bal- 
ance approach. The declining-balance 
schedule automatically converts to 
straight line at the point when the annual 
depreciation calculated by the straight- 
line method becomes larger than that 
calculated by declining balance. 

The Real Estate Templates also in- 
clude a very thorough personal finance 
statement template that yields a four- 
page printed document in a format suit- 
able for submission to a lending institu- 
tion. The main body of the statement is 
broken down into assets, liabilities and 
net worth, sources of income, personal in- 
formation, and contingent liabilities. Sup- 
plementary schedules cover banking re- 
lations; accounts, loans, and notes re- 
ceivable; life insurance; stocks and se- 
curities; real estate; retail credit ref- 
erences; and margin accounts with 
brokers. This is the one template that re- 
quires a larger-than-eighty-column 
printer. The worksheet uses nine 
columns of nine units' width, so it barely 
exceeds eighty columns. Like all the 



other templates, naturally, it can be 
modified to suit individual needs. 

Finally, the package includes three 
templates for income property invest- 
ment analysis. The three are identical ex- 
cept for their methods of calculating de- 
preciation. These are the largest 
templates of the set — so large that they 
leave no room in memory for instruc- 
tions. A good chunk of the manual, how- 
ever, is devoted to their elucidation, and 
there's also a filled-out sample to show 
you the way. 

The income property templates are 
intended to cover a single property with 
up to fourteen tenants and three mort- 
gages. The fourteen tenants could be 
treated as fourteen income categories, if 
you want to lump together tenants with 
the same rent. You enter all pertinent 
data for mortgages, income, and ex- 
penses — including anticipated vacancy 
rates and rates of inflation for both rent 
and expenses — and specify an analysis 
date. The template provides a detailed in- 
vestment analysis broken down as fol- 
lows: cash flow analysis, income sched- 
ule, expense schedule, debt structure, in- 
come approach valuation of the property, 
cost approach valuation of the property, 
tax depreciation, federal income tax 
computation, and projected equity posi- 
tion. 

As business software goes, the Visi- 
Calc Real Estate Templates are a re- 
freshing novelty: because they're unpro- 
tected, you can customize them to your 
own needs. You can modify the labels 
and the print styles, and — if you have the 
extra memory provided by a language 
system — you can observe the way the 
templates are made and extend them be- 
yond their present limits. Also refresh- 
ing is the price — an underwhelming $65. 

VU#3, from Progressive Software 
(Blue Bell, PA), is a tool for reorganiz- 
ing VisiCalc worksheets. The program 
manipulates text files created by the 
print-to-disk (or print-to-file, in VisiCalc 
3.3) command. VU#3 will allow you to 
translate any single coordinate, row, 
column, or combination thereof, from 
one location to another, presumably for 
the sake of consolidating separate Visi- 
Calc applications. It will also allow you to 
move data in either direction between 
VisiCalc /PD files and text files created 
by either Applesoft or Integer Basic. 

The program, by Marc Goldfarb, 
comes on a two-sided disk — one side for 
each DOS— and retails for $89.95. Hi 




"I wonder who will be the first programmer to leave his brain to science.' 




TELEPHONE 

COMMUNICATION 
SOFTWARE 



A COMPUTER-TO-COMPUTER 
TRANSMISSION & OPERATING 
SYSTEM 

THE MICROMODEM II DISK® is a software package of over 
20 inter-related Applesoft computer programs that allow an 
Apple to communicate with other computers via telephone 
lines. 

A written teaching TUTORIAL® comes with the DISK which 
explains step-by-step how to use the programs in clear, 
simple language 

This is a complete telephone communications system 
which has been painstakingly developed and de-bugged 
through daily, practical use by beginners and experts 

WHAT THE PROGRAMS WILL DO 

Without anyone even being present at a remote Apple: 
1 . Have the Apple dial phone numbers automatically 
or answer the telephone automatically 

2 Operate and control a remote computer over 
phone lines from your own Apple's keyboard 

3 Send programs, binary material, sequential text 
files or random-access text files to an unattended 
remote Apple 

4 Receive programs, binary material, sequential 
text files or random-access text files from an 
unattended remote Apple 

5 Make printouts on paper at a remote Apple. 

6 Do ail of the above on your own Apple from a 
remote location 

7. Log in on a big mainframe computer and 
communicate with it. 

8 Make totally (by "totally" we mean "TOTALLY" ) 
automatic transmissions without any human 
assistance at either the sending or receiving 
Apple (Use this feature to get the cheapest long- 
distance phone rates at night, to send reports 
after business hours, or just to save time spent 
tending a computer ) 

SPECIAL FEATURES 

Unlike other communications programs, this entire system 
of programs is written in Applesoft, not machine language 
This means you can LIST all the programs, understand 
them, and modify them to suit your special needs. 



Because the transmitted material is saved to disk while the 
transmission proceeds, an entire diskette full of data can be 
transmitted non-stop without filling up the Apple's limited 
memory capacity 

Occasional errors are inevitable in telephone communica- 
tions With these programs, you will not lose control over 
the remote Apple if errors occur because messages will 
inform you of the type and location of the error and return 
control of both computers to you. 

EQUIPMENT YOU MUST HAVE 

1. An Apple II* or Apple II Plus* & DOS 3.3 
2 Applesoft" in ROM or on a language card 
3. A Hayes MICROMODEM II" 

'TM of Apple Computer, Inc. 
"TM of Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc. 

THE COST AND HOW TO ORDER 

THE MICROMODEM II DISK® programs and the TUTORIAL® 
for them are sold together as a unit for $59.95 plus $3.00 for 
postage and handling. Send a check to: 

FIRST SOFTWARE CO. 
5622 EAST PRESIDIO 
SCOTTSDALE. ARIZONA 85254 

If you are not satisfied, we will refund the purchase price in 
full. VISA/MasterCard orders also accepted, telephone 
(602) 953-1208. When you consider the hours of 

programming effort required to create and de-bug just one 
single-purpose communications program, you will realize 
that this multi-purpose package of over 20 proven pro- 
grams is an enormous time and money saver. 



A QUANTUM JUMP... 

in Apple II Business Software! 

The EXECUTIVE SECRETARY 



.T.M. 



WORD PROCESSOR 



THE DOCUMENT EDITOR 

Keeps up with professional typing speeds. 

Allows user-defined abbreviations. 

Gives 40 or 80 character modes user-selectable. 

Uses the real shift key. 

Supports file merge and unmerge. 

Has global search and replace. 

Has block operatons: move, transfer, and delete. 

Has character/word/line: insert/replace/delete. 

Allows embedded commands to the printer. 

THE INTEGRATED CARD FILE 

Allows multiple card files per disk. 

Allows the user to define size and content of records. 

Generates new subset card files based on search or sort 

criteria for an existing file. 
Incorporates separate high-speed label printer program. 
Incorporates multiple line report printer for card files. 
Allows totals and subtotals during report printing. 

THE ELECTRONIC MAIL SYSTEM 

Is menu-driven 

Supports multiple document queuing. 

Is fully automatic with the D. C. Hayes modem. 



THE DOCUMENT PRINTER 

Integrates files from The Data Factory , Visicalc , 

and other sources. 
Accepts keyboard input at print time. 
Supports all major printers, including Centronics 737 

and IBM ET series. 
Allows conditional and relational commands to control the 

printing of information based upon the contents 

of a database. 
Prints page headers of arbitrary complexity. 
Prints page numbers whereever you want them. 
Supports file chaining and nesting. 
Supports multi-level outline indenting. 
Has left- and right-justified tab stops. 
Gives full control of all margins, dynamic text reformatting 

centering, and justification. 
Accesses the CCS clock to time-stamp documents. 

GENERAL 

Editing, printing, form letters, mail merge, database access 
and electronic mail all in one package at one price. 

Interfaces with The Data Factory' 71 and Visicalc m . 

Has user-selectable configuration of printer, slots, drives, 
and 40/80 column edit modes. 

Is fully menu-driven. 



The EXECUTIVE SECRETARY: 



PRICE: $250 



Everything you always wanted to do* with Visicalc , (but thought you couldn't). 

VERSA CA L C! 



★ SORT any number of rows; 
labels, values, formulas. 
You select the extent of 

the sort. 

★ CONDITIONAL TESTING 

to several levels. 

★ PRINT OUTTHE LIST 

OF COMMANDS 



★ AUTO BATCH UPDATE 

e.g. running year-to-date 
forms. 

★ MENU — DRIVEN MODULES 

for your own application 
programs. 

VERSACALC runs within Visicalc. 
VERSACALC: PRICE: $100 



★ AUTO-CATALOG 

from within Visicalc. 

★ AUTO SCREEN FORMAT 

saves hundreds of keystrokes 



;A lci 



Now in 16 Sector! 



See your Dealer or contact us BUtOTB SyStemS, IRC. 

Also available from aurora systems: 2040 East Washington Ave. 

Hebrew,, Quia ktrace MadiSOn, Wl 53704 

Omniscan Laser Video Disk Interface ' 

The Rental Manager (608)249-5875 

The Executive Secretary is a trademark of Personal Business Systems, Inc. Visicalc is a trademark of Personal Software, Inc. Versacalc is a trademark of Horizon Computing, Inc. 



■ 


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Unless otherwise noted, all products can be assumed to run on 
the Apple II, Apple II Plus, and Apple III in the emulator 
mode and to require U8K and one disk drive. The requirement 
for ROM Applesoft can be met by RAM Applesoft in a lan- 
guage card. 

Bez Man. By John Besnard. Here's the most entertaining pro- 
gram yet of the eat dots and gobble ephemeral folk genre. 

Three things set this offering apart from the others. The 
Bez Man moves faster than the various villains trying to catch 
him, which means that you're only limited by your dexterity 
and wit. There are at least three different mazes — one for the 
first two levels of difficulty, one for the second two levels of dif- 
ficulty, and one that lasts at least through level twelve. 

Finally, everything moves faster at each succeeding level 
until things are nearly a blur at the twelfth level. If things get 
much faster at the higher levels, you might as well mail in your 
game — it'll be too fast for you to see what's going on or to re- 
act to it. 

The game starts at a somnolent pace with only one ghost to 
eat and progresses to three beasties moving at incredible 
speeds on the upper levels. 

Keyboard control uses the i-j-k-m diamond, which makes 
the game awkward to master and calls forth various styles in 
the different players. But whether you're a one-handed or a 
two-handed Bez Man player, one thing's for sure : if you liked 
Snoggle or Gobbler, you'll love this one. ART 
Bez Man, by John Besnard, Bez, Irvine, CA. $22.95. 
Epoch. By Larry Miller. The second post-Nasir arcade game 
from Sirius Software, Epoch is not a complicated game. It 
doesn't require lightning fast responses or quick ducking. Nor 
has it a long-range goal, other than scoring higher and higher, 
or a complex purpose. But it is beautiful. 

In Epoch, your beat is space, raw and vast. You captain a 
ship out to destroy enemy fleets and bases. If there are other 
ships on your side, you never see them. Your assistance comes 
in two packages: friendly bases, at which you can refuel and 
rearm, and time warps. 

There are no bounds to your movement in Epoch. Space is 
all around you, and the enemy ships, which often seem to fly in 
schools of a type, are everywhere. They are of many colors 
and several shapes that you'll learn to recognize from the time 
they are so far away as to appear as little more than dots. So, 
too, with bases and time warps. 

Each type of ship has a vulnerable area that you must hit to 
destroy it. Enemy bases must be hit precisely in the center. 
When hit, they explode ; the debris is as dangerous as enemy 
fire — rather than doing recordable damage to your ship, hits 
on you or collisions with debris simply deplete your fuel sup- 
ply by varying amounts. All enemy facilities fire at you. 

You must maintain your fuel and ammunition by visiting 
friendly bases ; this requires finding them — a fuel-consuming 
task in itself — and flying through a small entry port. 

Time is your other expendable resource. To replenish it, 
you must find a time warp, enter it through a small opening, 
and maintain a course through an energy tunnel. 

As long as you can find friendly bases and time warps when 
you need them, the game continues. 

Sound effects in Epoch are unique. Explosion sounds vary 
with the type of ship hit and are relatively normal. But refuel- 
ing, entering a time warp, losing, and beginning a game are 
accompanied by two-voice music through the Apple speaker, 
simulating the organ strains of the movie 2001: A Space Odys- 
sey. It's very effective. 



Besides steering and shooting, you control the speed of your 
ship, and the sense of space flight becomes eerily convincing. 
Game paddles or, preferably, a joystick are your rudder, ac- 
celerator and decelerator, and trigger. You can choose among 
five degrees of steering response, and keyboard strokes toggle 
the direction response of the controller, so you're never stuck 
with having your ship do exactly the opposite of what seems 
the natural response to your input. 

High score is your goal. On the surface, in view of the so- 
phistication of games today, that seems an inadequate one. 
But the terrific sense of free motion and sailing through space 
combined with the attractiveness of the graphics make this 
game a real winner, one that you'll return to again and again, 
if only to experience its universe. 

The graphics are not perfect. While the sense of depth over- 
all is excellent, the ships and bases, when you close on them, 
prove to be flat. It doesn't take much from the overall effect, 
but having these also three-dimensional would have been ideal. 
Sirius promises that is coming. MCT 
Epoch by Larry Miller, Sirius Software, Sacramento, CA. Either DOS. 
$34.95. 

Individual Tax Plan. This package would be a pleasure to use. 
The documentation is among the best for microcomputer soft- 
ware. Introduction to program use is through step-by-step in- 
put of two different cases. You are told what should be input, 
what it will do, and what the screen should look like. Even a 
disagreement between the text and the software is a simple 
matter from which to recover and continue. 

Individual Tax Plan was designed for computing federal 
taxes. It will use appropriate tax tables or rate schedules, in- 
come averaging, and maximum tax on earned income and 
then select the lowest tax due. It will calculate up to five al- 
ternate cases at once to establish the minimum tax. It can han- 
dle charitable contributions, medical expenses, capital loss 
limitations, capital gain deductions, and ten- year averaging 
for lump-sum distributions. 

Individual Tax Plan was created primarily for the profes- 
sional tax preparer who is aware of the rocks and shoals of cur- 
rent federal tax law. It is not form oriented and will not pre- 
pare submittable forms. It is more involved with the big pic- 
ture and leaves the detail to the user. As an example, "divi- 
dends after exclusion" is a requested input. You are expected 
to know how much to exclude. Having found the minimum tax 
approach, either the professional or the individual could then 
finish the job with a program that prepares submittable tax 
forms. 

The program runs on a 48K Apple with at least one floppy 
drive with either DOS 3.3 or Pascal. Back-up copies of the pro- 
gram and data disks are easily made with Apple's Copy pro- 
gram. Compatible printers listed are Anadex, Epson, Spin- 
writer, and Okidata, but it ran perfectly on a Xymec as well. If 
substantial changes in the tax law are made during the year, 
new program disks will be available for $50. Disks for the 1982 
return will be available to current owners at 45 percent of the 
retail price. IN 
Individual Tax Plan, Aardvark Software, Milwaukee, WI. $250. 

Castle Wolfensteln. By Silas Warner. There is no game on the 
market like Castle Wolfenstein. Silas Warner has succeeded in 
creating a truly original game ; hopefully, the idea will catch 
on and what might be called arcade-adventure will become a 
genre, because it's good. 

This is a hi-res, talking, role-playing adventure requiring 



56 



OCTOBER 1981 



the skill for real-time quick response needed for an arcade 
game. 

You've been taken prisoner by the SS in Nazi Germany dur- 
ing World War II. They've sent you to Wolfenstein Castle for in- 
terrogation before they do you in. Another prisoner gives you a 
gun stolen from your captors and urges you to try to escape. 
He also tells you of a set of war plans somewhere in the castle. 
Escaping with the plans would be a great coup for the Allied 
forces. 

Your job is to escape. Ideally, you'll escape with the plans. 
Either way, you win the game. 

The castle is made up of several levels of hi-res rooms of 
various configurations. A block of one to three rooms appears 
on the screen at a time. Many rooms contain locked chests in 
which may be provisions of various types, arms, or nothing. 
Almost every room is guarded by one or more regular Ger- 
man army guards. Occasionally, a room is guarded by a mem- 
ber of the SS. Most rooms open into other rooms, but some are 
set off by locked doors. 

Guards, SS, and you are tiny colorful hi-res people who 
move in an animated goose step. Detail goes as far as having a 
swastika on the German uniform and an SS on the bulletproof 
vests. 

Uniforms and bulletproof vests are among the provisions 
you can find in the castle. Wearing the former may fool some 
of the guards; the benefits of wearing the latter are obvious. 

Guards are required to remain in the area they guard; SS 
men, however, move freely around the castle. Once an SS 
member discovers you, he'll pursue you until you kill him or he 
catches you. Since the SS (and only the SS, except you) wear 
bulletproof vests, you can't count on shooting them. A well- 
placed grenade will usually do the job, however. Not so well- 
placed, the grenade explosion can take you with it or just burn 
off your vest and uniform. 

Adding to the atmosphere of Castle Wolfenstein is an ex- 



tensive array of sound effects, the most pervasive of which is 
the marching of the sentinal soldiers. An annoying, abrasive 
sound occurs whenever you run into anything — wall, soldier, 
chest; yet it apparently has no effect except to discombobu- 
late the player. 

The piece de resistance in the sound area is that the Ger- 
mans talk; and, of course, they talk in German. The instruc- 
tions contain a brief dictionary translating their comments to 
English. You won't need the dictionary to get the gist, how- 
ever. 

It takes a while to get going in this game. You'll have to re- 
start several times before your timing is right and you pick up 
various strategies. Unfortunately, each time you start over, 
you're subjected to a long load and a repeat of a lengthy dis- 
course by the prisoner who gives you the gun. The one time 
you're spared the discourse— but not the load — is when you're 
resuming a game you saved. 

If that sounds like you can avoid the opening if you just save 
often, think again. Silas Warner believes saving to avoid re- 
play in case you're killed is not quite kosher; therefore, saving 
ends the play, rebooting automatically picks up the saved 
game, and, when you are killed, the saved game goes with you. 
Thus, the save feature on Castle Wolfenstein serves purely to 
enable you to quit because you have something else to do. 
You'll have to start over if you get killed anyway. 

While this is very frustrating at first, the castle is small 
enough that getting through it in one sitting is indeed possible. 
Once you get into it, the good features easily outweigh this 
early frustration. 

The most serious difficulty with this arrangement is its not 
providing for more than one game to be played (in this re- 
spect, this is a common inconvenience). If you've achieved a 
promotion or two and it's your child's turn to play, the child 
must either start right out with a harder game or you must 
give up your rank. In addition, if you have a game on hold and 



THE MOST CHALLENGING, NEW ADVENTURE 




Can you meet the challenge of Mad Ven- 
ture? This class 5 adventure has been 
puzzling game affecionados from coast to 
coast. 



Carl and Mary Porchey of Winston- 
Salem, North Carolina, write, "We are 
both avid adventure fans who have 
played many adventure games on our 
Apple including the original Apple Ad- 
venture, all ten of Scott Adam's ad- 
ventures, and the five On-Line Sys- 
tem's adventures. We have found the 
"Mad Venture" the most captivating 
and exciting to date. The Venture's 
puns, intriguing problems, and com- 
plex puzzles kept us busy for hours on 
end .... The rapidity of response and 
the clarity of formatting and text dis- 
play are big pluses in our book .... In 
short, this adventure is certainly the 
most entertaining we have found so 
far." 



© 1981 Micro lab, Inc 

Apple is a trademark of Apple Computers, Inc 



And now, Palace In Thunderland is available 
to continue to keep the Porcheys at home. It 
is a bit easier — a class 4 adventure, with the 
same whimsical, clever approach. Both are 
available on disk for an Apple II computer 
with 48K for $25. 




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58 



# / SOFT* I V 



OCTOBER 1981 



now it's your spouse's turn at the Apple, if said spouse wants to 
play this game, your saved game automatically resumes. End 
of saved game. 

Once you've escaped the castle, you aren't necessarily 
through — even though you've won. You'll probably have been 
promoted to a higher rank (for sure, if you got the plans) , and 
you can go back in and do it all over again — harder. There are 
at least six ranks to be achieved beyond private, which is 
where you start. 

In addition, you can generate new arrangements of the cas- 
tle rooms and guards, choosing either to retain whatever rank 
you've achieved or to return to private. 

Castle Wolfenstein can be played with paddles, joystick, or 
keyboard. Although keyboard play involves the use of nine- 
teen keys, it was preferred by all reviewing the game. n(T 
Castle Wolfenstein by Silas Warner, Muse Software, Baltimore, MD. 
Either DOS. $29.95. 

Mission Escape! By Jim Jacobson. You must work your way 
through numerous rooms of a closely guarded security station 
in hopes of reaching the hangar deck and freedom in this un- 
usual arcade game. Tiny hi-res storm troopers, deadly robots, 
and highly explosive drones mingle with blockades to block 
you as you follow the directions from room to room. 

Strategy is crucial in Mission Escape! And it doesn't hurt to 
have a good eye for angles; keyboard numbers one through 
eight stand for the eight angles of the compass as you direct 
your movement and aim. You have ten missiles (the only 
weapons that will kill a robot in one shot), ten rapid-fire re- 
peater shells, and infinite lasers, as well as armor that will 
withstand ordinary bullets. Unfortunately, the robots fire mis- 
siles, so they can kill you in one shot, too. 

The strategic planning helps you determine when to move 
where. Foes can hit you only from directly on one of the eight 
angles (you have the same limitation) , and they cannot shoot 
after they have moved (you can). So if you're in a safe spot 



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when your turn ends, you're okay. But there are often twenty 
or thirty foes in a room whose angles must be safe, so it's easy 
to overlook one. Just so it isn't all cut and dried, the drones 
blow up when they're shot and take everything within two 
squares in any direction with them. They have a nasty habit of 
cuddling in right next to you, just where they can pick up a 
stray bullet. 

Although you and the enemy take turns moving and shoot- 
ing, you must make your three moves within a brief time limit, 
or you lose them. 

This is a unique, enjoyable, and challenging game. A good 
touch is that the game acknowledges and retains the top five 
scores ever, along with the name you input for your charac- 
ters for games ; it doesn't forget them when the power goes off. 
They start blank, so from the start you're competing against 
yourself and seeing a record of your progress. f1(T 
Mission Escape! by Jim Jacobson, CE Software (Des Moines, IA). 
Either DOS. $24.95. 

Appleprint Using. By M. Condat. And: Print II. By John 
Hooper and Jim Leach. These two utilities extend the power of 
Applesoft to include versions of the Print Using statement 
available on many other computers. Print Using allows num- 
bers and strings to be printed in specified formats or at speci- 
fied locations on the screen. The most obvious application is for 
tabular output of financial data where the programmer wants 
decimal points aligned and all numbers printed to two deci- 
mal places. 

Both Appleprint Using and Print II work alongside the nor- 
mal Applesoft print command. You can use unformatted print 
statements and formatted ones side by side in the same pro- 
gram. Both utilities work in immediate execution as well as de- 
ferred. 

Appleprint Using has five modes — integer, decimal, and 
three financial modes. In the integer mode, you designate the 
maximum characters to be displayed. The syntax looks like 
this: Print ######A, where the pound signs show the number of 
permissible characters and A is any expression — integer, real, 
or string. Unused positions to the left of the expression appear 
as blanks. Real numbers are printed truncated to integers, and 
string expressions show up as a row of asterisks — as many 
asterisks as there are pound signs in the command. Numeric 
expressions with too many digits are likewise printed as a row 
of asterisks. 

The decimal mode is similar, except that the programmer 
can specify the position of a decimal point. A statement of the 
form Print ####■ ## will always have two figures to the right of 
the decimal point, with trailing zeros if necessary. Digits be- 
yond the specified maximum to the right of the decimal point 
are truncated rather than rounded. 

The first of the three financial modes adds readability to 
large numbers by inserting commas every third digit, moving 
leftward from the decimal point. The second does the same 
and adds a dollar sign to the immediate left of the number; and 
the third adds the commas and puts a dollar sign at a specified 
position to the left of the number. 

Appleprint Using comes on a copy-protected 3.2 disk. You 
have to boot the disk and install the program's machine-lan- 
guage routine before you can run any of your own programs 
that include formatted printed statements. 

Print II is a little easier to work with because it comes in 
Muf finable 3.2, and you can store the relevant routine on disk 
with your own programs. A "Print control-D Brun" statement 
at the top of your program installs Print II at $9A07. 

The syntax of Print II is Print For [Lc] (Td) , (Drd) , where 
Lc is an optional leading character; Td is the total number of 
digits ; and Drd is the number of digits to the right of the deci- 
mal point. Output to the right of Drd is truncated, as with Ap- 
pleprint Using. 

If you put an exclamation point in the optional leading-char- 
acter field of the command, all blanks to the left of the printed 
number will be replaced by asterisks. If you enter #, $, %, or ", 
the leftmost blank of the printed number will be replaced by 
the character selected. A number that overflows the limits 



OCTOBER 1981 



WU HI If 



59 



specified in the Print For command will be replaced entirely 
by greater-than symbols. 

Print For is intended to work with integers and reals; using 
it with string variables will not result in syntax errors but will 
produce some unpredictable output. 

In addition to Print For, the Print II program also has a 
Print At command that allows you to specify x and y co- 
ordinates of printed output. This accomplishes the same thing 
as Htab and Vtab statements but is easier to work with. (\ 
Appleprint Using, by M. Condat. Malibu Microcomputing, Malibu, CA. 
DOS 3.2, 32K. $19.95. 

Print II. Computer Systems Design, Rapid City, SD. DOS 3.3 or 3.2, 
32K. $24.95. 

Inferno: A Fantasy Adventure. Bold, attractive hi-res graph- 
ics introduce the Inferno; then the history of the adventure 
scrolls by in stylized hi-res text on — of all things — a hi-res 
scroll. When at last it's time to begin, the graphics are put 
away, and a text adventure begins. It doesn't matter. You'll 
soon be seeing the word-painted rooms and passages clearly. 

A few elements are different about Inferno and, at first, a 
bit disconcerting to the veteran adventurer. When you use a 
phrase the game doesn't know, it gives you no hint as to what's 
mysterious about it. In fact, it may know both words of the two- 
word phrase, but not in combination, so you'll have to try hard- 
er. 

Then, seldom will searching or doing things reveal any hint 
of secret passages. There are plenty, but you won't find them 
until you simply enter the initials for their directions. So you 
must try all eight directions — oops, ten — from every room. 

There are a few odds-ruled events in Inferno — such as the 
bridge that's always collapsing into a lava river — but the save 
feature is quick, leaves you in the game, and doesn't require a 
separate disk, so you can use it often. 



Most of these probability traps occur in one place, but 
there's a nasty ore that follows you throughout the adventure. 
You have the option of fighting him or running, and once in a 
while you get away. Even when you don't, you may occasion- 
ally win. Either way, encountering the ore costs you life points, 
and that's what you need to make it out of the inferno. 

Mapping is important, but you needn't worry about mazes 
of indistinguishable rooms; the author doesn't like them. He 
did include a section that appears to be a maze ; but it's wits 
and invention, not mapping, that will get you through it. 

As you conquer more and more of the Inferno, the adven- 
ture gets more and more fascinating. Puzzles are unique and 
hard, but their solutions are ultimately logical — the kind that 
make you so deliciously aware of your mind's competence 
when you finally figure them out. 

Winning earns you a hi-res reward, but you'll probably 
want to do it all over again to raise your adventurer rating by 
using fewer life points and fewer turns. 

This adventure is a winner from a new entrant into the ad- 
venture pool. We're looking forward to more adventures from 
this inventive, enthusiastic group of writers. f1(T 
Inferno by The Software Emporium (Tulsa, OK) . $29.95. 
Crossword Magic. By Larry Sherman. Occasionally there ap- 
pears a software package that defies normal categorization. 
Either it fits — sort of — into several categories, or it doesn't fit 
properly into any. Crossword Magic is such a package ; but it's 
so good at its unique task that, if you enjoy words and word 
play, you would do well to give it a place in your software li- 
brary. 

If you happen to be an educator, you'll be remiss not to in- 
vestigate the program. 

The package is composed of two disks — a player disk and a 
maker disk. The latter is the magical sibling. With this, you 




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60 



SOETAI I 



OCTOBER 1981 



can make crossword puzzles with no sweat or pain at all; 
Crossword Magic does all the work. If you're thinking it never 
occurred to you to try to make a crossword puzzle, anyway — 
read on. 

There's more to this ability than immediately meets the 
eye. Crossword Magic provides you with an instant grid in a 
size you choose. As you type in words, the maker disk fits them 
into the grid, crossing them with words already there. If 
there's no fit for a word you enter, the program tells you so but 
remembers the word. Then, when another entry falls in such a 
way as to allow the previously rejected word, the program will 
put it in. 

The maker disk recognizes a place for a word, even if it 
must span across several other words. There is even a skill to 
requesting words; the better your planning, the more words 
the program will be able to fit in. 

Because the word bank is blank when you begin, you can 
enter any kind of words you like. If your child is studying 
French, ten minutes with Crossword Magic will produce a 
crossword puzzle diagram that includes all your child's cur- 
rent French vocabulary words. (Unfortunately, if you don't 
know French, Crossword Magic doesn't think up the defini- 
tions for you.) You could also provide your child with a puzzle 
made up of words having to do with Apple computers. Writing 
the definitions will probably be a lot easier that way. 

The final puzzle is not apt to be symmetrical, nor will every 
box have a crossing word to help out the solver. The end prod- 
uct is more in line with British-style puzzles than with the stan- 
dard Dell variety. But these are increasing in popularity in this 
country, perhaps because of the double and triple definitions 
that often characterize this kind of puzzle. They're more fun to 
figure out — and more rewarding — than another name for an 
African ibis or an Indian arrow poison. 

Once you've made a puzzle, complete with definitions, you 
can save it to the disk. Another ability from the same menu 
transfers the puzzle to the player disk, from which each mem- 
ber of your family can try to solve your masterpiece on the Ap- 
ple. 



If you're very proud of your puzzle, or if you're a teacher 
and want to give copies to your students, Crossword Magic will 
print out your puzzle on a Silentype or Epson printer. The 
printout — at least on the Silentype — is excellent. 

You can see an example of a Crossword Magic devised puz- 
zle printed on a Silentype and reduced for publication on the 
contest page of Softalk this month. 

Words convey almost everything we wish to communi- 
cate; without words, we'd still be living in trees — or whatever 
it was our early ancestors frequented. Crossword Magic en- 
ables you to have fun learning about words — some of our most 
valuable commodities. H(T 
Crossword Magic by Larry Sherman, L & S Computerware (Sunny- 
vale, CA). $89.95. 

Falcons. By Eric Varsanyi and Thomas Ball. [With apologies 

to reputable poets everywhere.] 

My Apple's givin' me an awful fright 

Space critters spoilin' for a fight. 

There was Alien Rain and Typhoon, too 

Shootin' at me till I'm through; 

Space Invaders with tank cars clippin' 

Gamma Goblins with blood a drippin' 

Space Eggs hatchin' fuzz ball villains — 

This ain't no place for younger chilluns. 

But the worst of all, Willy-nilly, 

Is the Falcons game from Piccadilly. 

Spacemen floating in the air 

Change to birds to attack your lair. 

Two sets of these is quite enough, 

But what comes next is sterner stuff. 

Little dots weave to and fro, 

I fire madly as they go; 

Each tiny dot grows on the screen 

To become a Falcon flying machine. 

Down they swoop, hell-bent for leather! 

No time to question if or whether 

You can survive their awful attack, 

But if you do, there's no going back. 



qop H •!• •!• -1- « 





IT 



± 



BIRTH OF THE 



Dedicated to those who want to be 
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adventuring... 

BIRTH OF THE PHOENIX is a 

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The comprehensive manual explains in 
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adventure playing. Using the Tutorial 
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adventure, but be ready to tackle any 



MM 



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adventure, regardless of how advanced or 
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The low introductory price makes this the 
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The BIRTH OF THE PHOENIX text 
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Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 



Copyright 1981 Phoenix Software, Inc. 



CI 



WHY THE MICROSOFT 
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62 



fmmn 

- v 



OCTOBER 1981 



Three hundred points to kill those devils, 

And these were just the easy levels. 

A spaceship comes, no, I'm not daft, 

And it's defended fore and aft 

By more of the guys from the very first round; 

Flyin' and divin' they abound. 

I've .got to say I've not a clue 

If it's possible to shoot on through. 

But this I know: If you can, 

Then I'll concede you're a better man. ART 
Falcons, by Eric Varsanyi and Thomas Ball, Piccadilly Software, 
Summit, NJ. $29.95. 



Impre55ion5 



□ Shuffleboard. By Howard De St. Germain, David Morock, 
and Don Hoffman, Innovative Design Software (Las Cruces, 
NM). You wonder how a computer can play so well, how an 
armless piece of hardware can put you to shame in a contest of 
delicate physical skill. 

Shuffleboard can be played against the computer or an- 
other player. Better that you play with a compassionate friend 
than the cutthroat computer. The computer is amazingly skill- 
ful for its age and ruthless enough to knock any of your high 
scoring pucks off the target area. 

Innovative, who also designed Pool, is good at creating 
graphics for colliding objects. Shuffleboard allows you to aim 
your puck and control the strength of your push, from a very 
delicate placement shot to a jarring jolt that will send your op- 



ponent's puck sailing off the court. You can give your puck a 
hardy shove and watch it ease up into a graceful slide that ac- 
curately reproduces the movement of a real game. Bank your 
puck off the side walls for those tricky shots ; and if you're a 
good aim, you can bump your opponent's puck off the board 
while landing your disk to score five big points. The computer 
even cheers you on with the first four notes of Beethoven's 
Fifth Symphony when you make a good shot. 

If you long to sit poolside on a Mediterranean cruise, lazing 
in the sun while you indulge in a game of shuffleboard, this 
game might save you a lot of money. So the sun doesn't come 
with the game. You can always go out in the back yard and sip 
tea when you're through playing with your computer. 

The program provides options for both an easy and a diffi- 
cult level. You can play Tally All or Cutthroat. Choosing the 
difficult level might mean waiting a long time to win a game. 

The computer is a hot shuffleboard player — probably the 
result of a misspent youth. The game might not be as much fun 
as a Mediterranean cruise, but how else could you play shuf- 
fleboard in rainy weather? DOS 3.2 or 3.3. $29.95. 

□ Pro Football: A Pointspread Prediction System. College 
Football: A Pointspread Prediction System. Win at the Races. 
All three programs by Ken Perry, Systems Design Lab (Re- 
dondo Beach, CA). It's that time of year again. You can pit 
your Apple against the Las Vegas line or the rest of the office 
pool with the help of these programs. 

Both football programs work the same way. As the season 
progresses, you enter won- lost and home team data for all the 
teams you're concerned with. Perry recommends that you col- 
lect six weeks' worth of data before asking the computer to 
predict pointspreads. Thereafter, you just name the contend- 
ers and specify the home team, and your Apple will do its cal- 
culations and give you a point spread. 

Perry claims that his algorithm won more than 73 percent 
against the Las Vegas line in 1980, playing only upsets — games 
in which the program predicted one winner and Vegas the 
other. 

In Win at the Races, you enter name of track, type of race — 
sprint or route — and data for each horse. The program has dif- 
ferent algorithms for sprint and route races. For sprints, you 
enter number of days since the horse last raced, number of 
wins in the last ten starts, number of good races and failures in 
the last ten starts, number of speed points (defined in the docu- 
mentation), total number of starts in the horse's career, total 
winnings, jockey rating, and the last two good speed ratings. 
For route races, the program looks at post position, jockey rat- 
ing, total earnings, number of starts, number of wins in last ten 
starts, and last two good speed ratings. After all data is en- 
tered, the program retires for a moment and returns with its 
predictions. Either DOS. Football programs, $26.95 each; Win 
at the Races, $39.95. 

□ Wall Street. By Donald Brown, CE Software (Des Moines, 
IA) . Wall Street lets you into the power world of high finance. 
The fate of the American financial system will be determined 
by your investment decisions. One to nine players can play this 
stock market game inspired partially by the noncomputerized 
game of High Finance. You can buy and sell stock, take out 
loans, license a secret information service, and scan the pages 
of a finance journal that keeps you up-to-date with the latest 
stock information. 

You can buy stock in six industries: entertainment, oil, 
automotive, retail, appliance, and, of course, computer. If 
you're a computer fan, you know where you should invest. In- 
vestment possibilities in the computer industry include Apple, 
IBM, Tandy, DEC, and CE Software. 

After designating the number of players (three to five are 
best) , each player will be asked to select which information ser- 
vice he or she would like to license. The better the information 
the service provides, the more you have to pay. Messages from 
the service will be coded and appear randomly on the front 
page of the finance journal. Don't be looking off into space 
when your secret information flashes. It might appear for only 
a second, or it might be plastered as a headline on the front 




Here's the KEY to Graphics 
on your Apple® 



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DIABLO 1640 $44.95 
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GRAPHICWRITER: Hard copy of character sets found in 
DOS Tool Kit for use with Applewriter or print statements in 
your own programs. Requires DOS 3.3, DOS Took Kit, one of 
graphic printers below: with Apple' Parallel or Centronics 
Interface. 



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where applicable 



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Apple II is a registered trademark ol Apple Computer. In< 



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64 



OCTOBER 1981 



page of the journal where opponents can take advantage of in- 
formation you pay for. The code will tell you if a particular 
stock is going to drop or rise, and the day the event will occur. 
"In five days there is 20% probability that IBM stock will drop 
50 percent." You'll have to decide what to do. Of course, the in- 
formation is coded, but everybody knows the code. Usually the 
information applies only to one player's stock. 

Each day the finance journal lists headlines announcing 
major events that affect the stock market. Inside are individ- 
ual listings of stock price and gain or loss figures for all thirty 
companies, as well as individual financial positions (holdings, 
loans, and net worth) of each player. At the end of the week, 
players must pay fees for interest on loans, information ser- 
vices, and broker transactions. You can go broke in two weeks 
if you lease a high-priced information service that doesn't pay 
off. 

The object is to become the first millionaire. Everybody 
starts with ten thousand dollars. A player can also win by re- 
maining solvent while everybody else goes bankrupt. A vicious 
game. 

So you want to be a millionaire. If you don't have time in 
real life, you can play financier at home and make a mint in 
your spare time. $24.95. 

□ Pegasus II. By Olaf Lubeck, On-Line Systems (Coarsegold, 
CA). Your space craft flies low over enemy terrain, dropping 
bombs on enemy structures. Meanwhile, the enemy fires 
rockets to bring you down. 

The beauty of this game is in the variety of controls you 
have. You can fire missiles at objects directly in front of you or 
drop bombs on objects below. Hitting the space bar allows you 
to lag behind, giving you time to aim at objects ahead and 
making it easier to avoid enemy fire. Or you can stay forward 
in the thick of the fire where you score more points for your 
hits. 



Pegasus even allows you to create your own terrain, which 
makes the game far more challenging. You can choose be- 
tween beginning or intermediate levels for a meander tunnel 
through which you must maneuver while dodging moving 
bombs. If you hit the side of the tunnel, it's all over. Likewise, if 
you hit any cliffs, plateaus, or enemy bases, you'll be blown to 
smithereens. One blow isn't fatal: you've got five ships. But 
don't be too careless. 

Scooting along over enemy terrain, you'll find three differ- 
ent types of enemy installations: watertowers, fuel tanks, and 
missiles. The ships' cruising altitude is controlled by a paddle. 
In the normal terrain it's possible to swoop down quickly after 
the first mountain peak and fire continuously at everything in 
front of you. But slow reflexes are likely to cause you to crash 
into a fuel tank, blowing up three of your ships. If you can't get 
down in time, you're better off whisking over the enemy struc- 
tures and dropping bombs. The only drawback is that now you 
are a sitting duck for the missiles below. 

If you master the quick-dive-and-fire approach, you will 
soon find yourself dealing with the Pegasus monsters, who will 
fire backward while flying away from you. You must dodge 
their extending lasers while you pick them off. Moving onto 
terrain again, you will be confronted by a constellation of stars 
that you cannot hit. If you're good, you can dodge stars while 
you drop bombs. Next you will run into a field of eagles. Now 
you have to shoot eagles, dodge missiles and drop bombs fast- 
er than you can think. 

The eagles are followed by a hovering formation of saucers 
and— phew! If you make it through all that, you'll need a re- 
fueling. Your space station appears, and you have to dock and 
load up with fuel. 

If you tire of the original terrain, you can opt to create your 
own terrain. A terrain generating program allows you to 

GOTO 86 



NEW APPROACH TO LEARNING 




Neither this program nor its developers is in any way af- 
filiated with the SAT. the College Board, or Educational 
Testing Service. 



Did you ever choose an answer on an 
exam and 

A) think it was wrong, but got it right. 

B) were sure it was right — it wasn't! 

C) made a lucky guess and wondered 
how. 

D) think it was right, but not sure why. 

E) all of the above 

With these unique tutorial programs, 
you will beshown whyyouranswerwas 
right or wrong. Learning becomes fun 
when you understand the reasoning 
behind a choice. 

The ENGLISH SAT I (which provides 
aid in the verbal section — Antonyms, 
Analogies, Sentence Completions, 
Reading Comprehension and English 
Grammar) of the Scholastic Aptitude 
Tests, and the U.S. CONSTITUTION 
TUTOR (to help prepare for any level 
exam in U.S. Government) are cur- 
rently available for an Apple II compu- 
ter with 48K and a disk drive at $30 
each. 

micpc lab 
learning center 




** US.** 
Constitution 

TUTOR 

By Myrna Helfand 



© 1981 Micro Lab, Inc. 
Apple is a trademark of Apple Computers. Inc. 



systems that work. 



2310 Skokie Valley Road . Highland Park, IL 60035 • 312-433-7550 



S O F T D I S K 






With some hi-res graphics, new programs and split-screen interaction, the second issue of Softdisk is ready to help your 
Apple react more intelligently to your commands. 

Softdisk is a magazine on disk with helpful features for Apple owners. Features include interaction with the computer 
and with other subscribers to bring you an issue of maximum utility. The material in Softdisk in no way duplicates the mate- 
rial found in Softalk or other publications. 

A copy program on the disk allows you to make copies for your own use after you've read and responded to the maga- 
zette. Then send the master disk back in its self-mailer, so your comments can be reflected in the next issue. This feedback 
mechanism allows you the privilege of shaping the magazette to your own interests and requirements. 

Your first subscription to Softdisk is $10.00 Each additional issue is $5.00 with the return of the master disk from a pre- 
vious issue. 

Send your orders to Softdisk, 3811 St. Vincent, Shreveport, Louisiana 71108. 



SOFTDISKMagazette 



Everyone's Guide to Assembly 
Language, Part 13 

Commands Covered So Far: 

JMP LDA LDX LDY TAX 

JSR STA STX STY TAY 

RTS INC INX INY TXA 

NOP DEC DEX DEY TYA 

— CMP CPX CPY PHA 

BEQ BNE BCC BCS PLA 

SEC CLC ADC SBC 

In an earlier issue, I discussed how to access the disk using 
the RWTS routine. There is another way in which the disk can 
be read that is more similar to the procedure used in Basic. 
The advantage of this system is that we need not be concerned 
about what track and sector we're using, since DOS will handle 
the files just as it does in a "normal" program. The disadvan- 
tage is that we must have the equivalent of Print and Input 
statements to use in our programs to send and receive the 
data. So, before going any further, let's digress to input/output 
routines. 

Print Routines. I, personally, have two favorite ways of 
simulating the Print statement. The first has been described in 
earlier issues and looks like this: 











2 


* DATA-TYPE PRINT ROUTINE 










3 












4 


* 










5 


* 










6 


OBJ $300 










7 


ORG $300 










8 


* 










9 


COUT EQU $FDED 


0300: 


A2 


00 




10 
1 1 


* 

ENTRY LDX #$00 


0302: 


BD 


0E 


03 


12 


LOOP LDA DATA,X 


0305: 


F0 


06 




13 


BEQ DONE 


0307: 


20 


ED 


FD 


14 


JSR COUT 


030A: 


E8 






15 


INX 


030B: 


DO 


F5 




16 
17 
18 


BNE LOOP 
* (ALWAYS UP TO 255 CHRS) 

* 


030D: 


60 






19 
20 


DONE RTS 


030E: 


84 


CI 


D4 


21 


DATA HEX 84 


030F: 


C3 






22 
23 


ASC "CATALOG" 


0316: 


00 






24 
25 


EOF BRK 

* 



This type uses a defined data block to hold the ASCII values 
for the characters we wish to print. The printing is accom- 
plished by loading the X register with 00 and stepping through 
the data table until a 00 is encountered. Each byte loaded is put 
into the accumulator and printed via the JSR to COUT 
($FDED). When the 00 is finally reached, the BEQ on line #13 
is taken and we return from the routine via the RTS at DONE. 

The new item of interest in this listing is the use of the $84 as 
the first character printed. This will be printed as a control-D 
and the word Catalog that follows executed as a DOS com- 
mand. 



This is the essence of this month's message, along with the 
routines. Any DOS command can be executed from machine 
language exactly the same way it's done from Basic. One need 
only precede the command with a control-D and terminate the 
command with a carriage return. (Note : the Read and Write 
are something of an exception to this but can still be done with 
only minor compensations). 

Because DOS looks at all characters being output, it will see 
the control-D character and behave accordingly. 

Try entering this program and then calling with either a 
300G from the Monitor, or a CALL 768 from Basic. 

This next print routine is more involved but does offer some 
advantages. The advantage is that the hex or ASCII data for 
what you want to print can immediately follow the JSR PRINT 
statement, which parallels Basic a little more closely, and 
avoids constructing the various data blocks. The disadvan- 
tage is that the overall code is longer for short programs such 
as this. The general rule of thumb is to use the data-type when 
you have only to print once or twice during the program, and to 
use the following type when printing many times. 

The logic behind its operation is slightly more complex than 
the previous routine, but I think you'll find it quite interesting. 

Here's the new method: 

^ ************************ 











2 


* SPECIAL PRINT ROUTINE * 










3 


************************ 










4 


* 










5 


OBJ $300 










6 


ORG $300 










7 


* 










8 


PTR EQU $46 










9 


EQU $FDED 










10 


* 


300 


20 


0D 


03 


11 


ENTRY JSR PRINT 


303 


84 






12 


E0 HEX 84 


304 


C3 


CI 


D4 


13 


ASC "CATALOG" 


30B 


00 






14 


HEX 00 


30C 


60 






15 


DONE RTS 










16 


* 


30D 


68 






17 


PRINT PLA 


30E 


85 


46 




18 


STA PTR 


310 


68 






19 


PLA 


311 


85 


47 




20 


STA PTR + 1 


313 


AO 


01 




21 


LDY #$01 ; PTR HOLDS 'E0' - 










22 


* 


315 


Bl 


46 




23 


P0 LDA (PTR),Y 


317 


F0 


06 




24 


BEQ FNSH 


319 


20 


ED 


FD 


25 


JSR COUT 


31C: C8 






26 


* 


31D: DO 


F6 




27 


BNE P0 ; (MOST ALWAYS) 










28 


* 


31F 


18 






29 


FNSH CLC 


320 


98 






30 


TYA 


321 


65 


46 




31 


ADC PTR 


323 


85 


46 




32 


STA PTR 


325 


A5 


47 




33 


LDA PTR+1 


327 


69 


00 




34 


ADC #$00 


329 


48 






35 


PHA 


32A 


A5 


46 




36 


LDA PTR 


32C 


48 






37 


PHA 


32D 


60 






38 


EXIT RTS 










39 


* WILL RTS TO DONE INSTEAD 










40 


* E0 ! 










41 


* 




a 
T 



1** 



^^^^ 



10- 



)N /\des 



cVW e 



CB5 



erf 



pe 



us 



q6 



vs. 




tot 



\ La 



C* 1 



68 



OCTOBER 1981 



This one is rather interesting in that it uses the stack to de- 
termine where to start reading the data. You'll recall that 
when a JSR is done, the return address minus one is put on the 
stack. Upon entry to the Print routine, we use this fact to put 
that address in PTR, PTR+1. By loading the Y register with 
#$01 and indexing PTR to fetch the data, we can scan through 
the string to be printed until we encounter 00, which indicates 
the end of the string. 

When the end is reached, the BEQ FNSH will be taken. In 
that section, the Y register (the length of the string printed) is 
transferred to the accumulator and added to the address in 
PTR, PTR+1, and the result pushed back onto the stack. Re- 
member that the old return address was E0-1 until it was 
pulled off. 

Now when the RTS is encountered, the program will be 
fooled into returning to DONE instead of E0 as it would other- 
wise have done. 

To summarize, then: 

1) Any DOS command can be executed from machine lan- 
guage just as it is done in Basic by doing the equivalent of 
Printing a control-D followed by the command and a carriage 
return. 

2) A data-type print routine uses ASCII characters in a la- 
beled block, which is then called by name using the X register 
in a direct indexed addressing mode. The string to be printed 
should have the high bit set (ASCII value + $80), and the 
string must be terminated by a zero (at least when using the 
routine given here). 

3) A JSR to a special print routine can also be done. In this 
case the ASCII data should immediately follow the JSR, again 
have the high bit set, and end in a 00. 

Input Routines. The other side of the coin is, of course, the 
Input routine. You might be surprised by the number of times I 
get calls from people saying, "If only the input in such-and- 
such program would accept quotes, commas, etc." The solu- 
tion is actually quite simple and is presented here. 

In its simplest form, the routine looks like this: 




1 odd War 1 1 rages across Europe 
Castle Wolfenstein is occupied by the army 
of the Reich and converted into battle-front 
headquarters You have been captured and 
brought to the Castle for interrogation by the 
dreaded SS From a hiding place behind the 
stones of the dungeon a dying cellmate pro- 
duces a Mauser M-98 pistol fully loaded with 
ten bullets and gives it to you Your new 
mission Find the Nazi war plans and escape 
Castle Wolfenstein alive 
Castle Wolfenstein'" is an action adventure 
game from MUSE demanding fast thinking 
and quick manual response Use game pad- 
dles, joystick, or your computer keyboard . 
Wolfenstein'" generates an unlimited variety of castle 
layouts, each more difficult to escape than the last 
For the Apple II and Apple II Plus with 48K $29 95 

(Sastle 

I fflOLFENSTEIN " 

by Silas S- Warner 



Castle 



MUSE 



300: 
302: 
305: 
306: 
307: 
308: 
30A: 
30C: 
30F: 
311: 
313: 
314: 
316: 



A2 00 

20 75 FD 

8A 

A8 

C8 

A9 00 



91 
B9 
29 
91 
88 

CO' FF 
DO F4 



46 

00 02 
7F 
46 



318: 60 



1 ***************************** 

2 * INPUT ROUTINE FOR BINARY * 

2 ***************************** 

4 * 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 



* STORES STRING AT PTR LOC 

* 

OBJ $300 
ORG $300 

* 

GETLN EQU $FD75 
BUFF EQU $200 
PTR EQU $46 



ENTRY LDX #$00 
JSR GETLN 

* 

CLEAR TXA 
TAY ; T-REG = LEN NOW 
I NY 

LDA #$00 

C2 LDA BUFF,Y ; PUT END-OF-STRING MARKER. 
AND #$7F 
STA (PTR),Y 
DEY 

CPY #$FF 
BNE C2 

* 

DONE RTS 



330 N CHARLES STREET 
BALTIMORE. MD 21201 
.(301)659 7212 



The heart of this routine is a call to the Monitor's GETLN 
routine, which gets a line of text from the keyboard or current 
input device and puts it in the keyboard buffer ($200-2FF). 

This saves our having to write one ourselves. The beauty of 
this is also that all the escape and left/right arrow keys are 
recognized. When the routine returns from GETLN, the en- 
tered line is sitting at $200+. The length is held in the X regis- 
ter. 

At this point we could, presumably, just return from our 
routine as well ; but as it happens, all the data now in the buffer 
has the high bit set— that is, #$80 has been added to the ASCII 
value of each character. Because Applesoft in particular, and 
many other routines in general, don't expect this, the high bit 
should be cleared before returning. Also $200+ will hold only 
one string at a time, so there should be some provision for put- 
ting the string to some final destination. 

Both are accomplished in the Clear section of this routine. 
First the length of the string is transferred via the TXA, TAY 
to the Y register. My preference is then to mark the end of the 
string by bumping Y by one and storing a 00 as a terminator. 
That step is optional. 

Next, C2 begins a loop that loads each character into the 
buffer, does an AND with #$7F, and then stores the result at a 
location pointed to by PTR, PTR+1 plus the Y register offset. 

The AND #$7F has the effect of clearing the high bit by forc- 
ing bit 7 to a 0. 

The Y register is then decremented and the loop repeated 
until the DEY forces Y to an $FF. This will indicate that the 
last value was $00, and we have thus completed scanning the 
buffer. 

This routine will work fine as long as you're willing to man- 
age the string entirely yourself once it gets to the PTR, PTR+1 
location. 

As noble as it might be to write programs entirely in ma- 
chine language, I usually prefer to write in both Applesoft and 
machine. This is because unless speed is required, Applesoft 
does offer some advantages in terms of program clarity and 
ease of modification. After all, if there were no advantages to 
Applesoft, why would somebody have written it in the first 
place? 

So, to that end, here are two new listings, the first in Apple- 
soft: 



OCTOBER 1981 



SOCTALK 



69 



10 IN$ = "X" 

20 PRINT "ENTER THE STRING: "; 

30 CALL 768: IN$ = MID$(IN$,1) 

40 IF INS = "END" THEN END 

50 PRINT INS: PRINT: GOTO 20 

and the second in assembly language: 



300: 


A2 


00 


302: 


20 


75 FD 


305: 


AO 


02 


307: 


8A 




308: 


91 


69 


30A: 


C8 




30B: 


A9 


00 


30D: 


91 


69 


30F: 


C8 




310: 


A9 


02 


312: 


91 


69 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 



* INPUT ROUTINE FOR FP BASIC * 

***************************** 

* 

* IN$="" MUST BE 1ST VARIABLE 

* DEFINED IN PROGRAM! 

* 

OBJ $300 
ORG $300 

* 

GETLN EQU $FD75 
VARTAB EQU $69 
BUFF EQU $200 



ENTRY LDX #$00 
GETLN 

LDY #$02 

TXA 

STA (VARTAB),Y 

* STORE 'X-REG = LEN OF IN$' 

* IN LEN BYTE OF INS 

* 

I NY 

LDA #$00 

STA (VARTAB),Y 

I NY 

LDA #$02 

STA (VARTAB),X 

* SET LOCATION PTR OF IN$ TO 

* $200 (INPUT BUFFER) 



314: 


8A 


60 




33 


f~ 1 C A D TV A 

CLEAR TXA 


315: 


A8 






34 


TAY ; Y— REG = LEN NOW 


316: 


B9 


00 


02 


35 


/— *-| ir\A Dl ICC V 

C2 LDA BUrr,Y 


319: 


29 


7F 




36 


AND #$7r 


31 B: 


99 


00 


02 


37 


CT A Dl ICC V 

STA BUrr,Y 


31E: 


88 






38 


DEY 


31F: 


CO 


FF 




39 


CPY #$FF 


321: 


DO 


F3 




40 


BNE C2 










41 


* 


323: 


60 






42 


DONE RTS 



The important difference to notice here is that IN$ has been 
defined as the first variable in the Applesoft program, and that 
the machine language routine uses this fact to transfer the 
string to Applesoft. 

The way this is done begins at XFER. When an Applesoft 
string variable is stored, the name, length and location of the 
string are put in a table, whose beginning is pointed to by loca- 
tions $69, 6A (VARTAB, VARTAB+1). 

Since IN$ was the first variable defined, we know that its 
name and pointer will start at wherever VARTAB points. The 
name is held in positions 00 and 01, the length in 02, and the lo- 
cation in 03 and 04. 



+ 4 

+ 3 
+ 2 

LOMEM:+l 



loc + 1 



loc 



length 



N$ 



-LOMEM: ($69,6A) 



By loading the Y register with #$02, we can store the length 
of the entered string in the proper place. The location of IN$ is 
then set to $200 by putting the appropriate bytes into positions 3 
and 4. Now Applesoft is temporarily fooled into thinking that 
IN$ is at $200 — right where our input string is held! 



Games for Thinkers! 




IHRUST 



(Who want to have fun) 

mission 

ESCAPE! 



Donald Brown's world of 
adventure. Continuing chal- 
lenges face characters who are 
developed, trained and sent on 
from disc to disc. SwordThrust 
allows you to fight, flee, even 
charm or make friends with ad- 
versaries. By far the most unique 
adventure game yet created. 
Already available: "The King's 
Testing Ground", "The Vampyre 
Caves", "Kidnapper's Cove", "The 
Case of The Sultan's Pearl" and 
"The Green Plague". Each is a 
unique adventure with new 
characters in strange places. 
More on the way! 
Master Diskette "The King's 
Testing Ground" $29.95 
Each additional adventure $24.95 



The strategy of chess and the 
action of combat! Jim Jacobson's 
provided hours of terror as you 
attempt to flee an enemy base 
(where you've been held captive). 
Robots, drones and stormtroopers 
will stop at nothing to get you. 
All you have are your wits and a 
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The routine finishes by clearing the high bit, as before, and 
then returning with the RTS. 

When the return is done, line 30 of the Applesoft program 
immediately assigns IN$ to itself in such a way as to force Ap- 
plesoft to move IN$ from where it was in the input buffer to a 
new location up in its usual variable storage area. The net re- 
sult can be obtained in various other ways besides the MID$ 
statement, but the way shown is the least intrusive in terms of 
affecting other variables. (You could use AS = INS : INS = AS, 
but then you'd need a second variable in your program — no 
problem, just more names to keep track of.) 

Try assembling this routine and the Applesoft program. 
Make sure the input routine is loaded at $300 before running the 
Applesoft program. Note that you can enter commas, quotes, 
control-C's, etc. Only END or pressing reset should be able to 
exit this routine. 

Next month, we'll put all this together into a mini-data base 
that stores and retrieves a number of strings with a normal 
disk file. 

The Confessional. Alas, I've erred. The July and August is- 
sues of Assembly Lines both contained errors that I would love 
to say were merely typographical; but, unfortunately, I 
couldn't convince the editor and typesetters to take the blame 
for me. 

In the July issue, I discussed the ADC and SBC commands. 
Please note that ADC does clear the carry if the result is $FF 
or less. SBC behaves similarly, in that if the result of the sub- 
traction requires a borrow, the carry is cleared (borrow set, as 
in S50-S80) ; otherwise the carry is set (borrow clear as in 
S40-S10). 

Please note that the CLC or SBC still needs to be done be- 
fore an addition or subtraction operation to assure an accu- 
rate result. 

The August issue had twice as many errors. Again the car- 
ry was involved. (Sigh. . . .) 

On page 60, 1 mentioned that the carry should be cleared be- 



fore calling RWTS so that an accurate check for an error could 
be done when it returned. At the time I was under the impres- 
sion that RWTS did not specifically clear the carry if no error 
occurred. It does. This can be seen by examining the end of the 
RWTS routine itself, or demonstrated by experiment. From 
my own experimentation at an earlier time, I somehow got the 
impression that the carry was not specifically cleared by 
RWTS after a no-error call. 

In retrospect, I think this probably came about through an- 
other bug that I've since discovered. Some of you may have ex- 
perienced a beep from the Monitor when calling the RWTS util- 
ity given in the August article. This seems to be intermittent; 
the "beep" doesn't occur if you have done a legitimate DOS 
command, such as Catalog, prior to calling the routine. 

I have isolated the cause to be a result of the contents of lo- 
cation $48. If this location holds a $00, no bell is given when you 
call a routine. However, if $48 holds a nonzero number, every- 
thing still works okay, but the Monitor talks to you every time 
you call the routine. I suspect it was this effect that made me 
think RWTS wasn't doing its job with the carry. C'est la 
guerre. . . . 

The second error was in regard to which track and sector to 
read to alter DOS for the disk volume modification. In the first 
example it instructed the user to read track 1, sector D by typ- 
ing in: 

06: 01 0D 01 60 00 10 

The line should have read: 

06: 02 02 01 60 00 10 

This would have read in track 2, sector 2, which is where 
the data we're interested in actually resides. 

My thanks to the many readers who responded to this test 
of their attention (and perseverance) and wrote me such kind 
letters advising me of the errors. 

My apologies for any confusion this may have caused. Bet- 
ter luck next time? 



DROWNING IN PAPERWORK? 

The MAGIC WINDOW word processing system lets you breath easier. 

MAGIC WINDOW is the professional tool that will lessen the efforts of communication and improve your productivity! 
Secretaries at APPLE, Engineers, writers of leading computer magazines and U.S. government officials have 
selected and use MAGIC WINDOW over all the other 
word processors available for the APPLE II comf 

MAGIC WINDOW'S overwhelming appeal among^ 
experts and novice computer users originates^ 
simulation of a standard typewriter. Add thrl 
of disk file storage, four way scrolling proviti 
of 80 column documents, logically placed 
learn single key editing commands, and you 
processor that is truly magical. 

Take a relaxing deep breath and ask your loca, 
computer store for MAGIC WINDOW. 

ANNOUNCING BASIC MAI 

BASIC MAILER is a mailing list merge system d 
to take MAGIC WINDOW document files and re 
names, addresses or any other section of the docu 
individual data, creating customized letters, invoic 
etc. BASIC MAILER uses the same human engineer 
systems used by MAGIC WINDOW. 

Together MAGIC WINDOW and BASIC MAILER 
create an affordable, powerful and professional 
word processing mailing system. The uses for either of these 

systems are almost unlimited. — 




10432 Burbank Boulevard • North Hollywood, California 91601 • (213)985-5763 




Where your secret weapon 
is the fourth dimension... 

— £ Copyright 1981 By Sirius Software, Inc. 





ORBITRON 




In the center of an orbiting space station 
you are protected only by a revolving 
force shield. Enemy forces are advanc- 
ing from all directions and begin to 
place killer satellites in orbit around 
your station. And then, look out for the 
meteors! 

Copyright 1981 By Sirius Software, Inc. 



A "bloody" good game for the 
true-blue game freak. Your mission in 
this exploratory operation is to deliver 
whole blood to Hemophilia, a city in 
the sky, and return to Anemia Base 
before the Gamma Goblins 
overcome you. A real heart stopper! 

Copyright 1981 By Sirius Software, Inc. 




BY TORY J1HD BEHHY HQO • fl PRODUCT Of SIRIUS SOFTWARE. IHC. 




Phantoms Five simulates a fighter- 
bomber mission in real time, three 
dimensional color graphics. While you 
try to make your bombing run, you have 
to avoid being hit by anti-aircraft fire 
and fight off enemy aircraft as well. 

Copyright 1980 By Sirius Software, Inc. 



Hatch some fun with the Spiders, 
Wolves, Lips, and Fuzzballs. Space 
Eggs will crack you up! Each package 
includes a multi-color T-shirt iron-on 
that says "I FRIED THE SPACE EGGS." 

Copyright 1981 By Sirius Software, Inc. 



I 



This is the graphics editing package 
we based our business on. Includes 
the Higher Text Character Generator 
by Ron & Darrell Aldrich and over 20 
original and imaginative type styles. 

Copyright 1980 By Sirius Software, Inc. 



A Product Of Sirius Software, Jnc. 



Graphics 




The professional graphics editing 
package for use within the Pascal 
environment. 

Copyright 1981 By Sirius Software, Inc. 




qorqon is bene... 

THE EARTH HAS ENTERED A TIME WARP . . . AND THE BATTLE HAS JUST BEGUN 

:~ ~ ■„..? Copyright 1981 By Sirius Software, Inc. 



STAR CRUISER 

CYBER STRIKE 



AUTOBAHN 



PULSAR II 



A two game pack featuring "High Noon" and "Duck 
Hunt" You'll love the bad guy that falls off the roof 
and the dogs fighting over the ducks Fun for the 
young and the young at heart. 
Copyright 1980 By Sirius Software, Inc. 

Save yourself from the swooping aliens! This is a fast 
action arcade style game that can be played from 
ages three and up, but beware, the difficulty in- 
creases with each new wave of aliens. 
Copyright 1980 By Sirius Software, Inc. 

Interstellar challenge for the dedicated arcade gamer. 
You are in command of a light transport ship equip- 
ped with Hyperspace Drive, Antimatter Torpedoes, 
Local and Galactic Sensors, Meteor Shields, and 
an Instrument Panel which continually tabulates 
all information vital to your mission. You alone can 
prevent the clone take over of the allied settlement 
bases. WARNING . . . this game requires practice to 
play successfully. 

Copyright 1980 By Sirius Software, Inc. 

Hair raising excitement at 120, 160, and 200 kilome- 
ters per hour! Drive through heavy traffic, oil slicks, 
narrow roads, and dark tunnels (with headlights). 
Watch out for the fire trucks! Only on the Autobahn 
can you drive this fast. 
Copyright 1981 By Sirius Software, Inc. 

A unique two game series that provides scoring 
options for separate or combination game play. To 
destroy the "Pulsar" is no easy task. It is surrounded 
by spinning shields that send out orbs of energy 
aimed directly at you. "The Wormwall" places you in 
one of the strangest mazes ever created. The walls do 
not connect. Openings only occur temporarily as 
moving colored segments in the walls cross. In addi- 
tion, there are munching mouthers in each level of 
the maze ready to gobble you up should you mis- 
judge the time and location an opening will occur. 
Copyright 1981 By Sirius Software, Inc. 



Contact Your Local Computer Dealer For More Information • Dealer Inquiries Invited 



= Sirius Software, Inc. 

2011 Arden Way #2, Sacramento, California 95825 



PROGRAMMING: Copts & Robbers was programmed by Alan Merrell 
and Eric Knopp. Epoch was programmed by Larry Miller. Orbitron 
was programmed by Eric Knopp. Gamma Goblins was programmed 
by Tony and Benny Ngo. E-Z Draw was programmed by Nasir Gebelli 
and Jerry W. Jewell. Pascal Graphics Editor was programmed by 
Ernie Brock. Sneakers was programmed by Mark Turrhell. Gorgon, 
Phantoms Five. Space Eggs, Both Barrels, Star Cruiser, Cyber Strike, 
Autobahn, and Pulsar II were programmed by Nasir. 

COPYRIGHT INFORMATION: All software mentioned in this advertise- 
ment are copyrighted products of Sirius Sottware, Inc. All rights re- 



served. Apple and Applesoft are registered trademarks ol Apple 
Computer Inc. Higher Text is a copyrighted product of Synergistic 
Software. We use Control Data disks for highest quality. 



SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS: All software mentioned in this advertisement 
require an Apple II or II + with 48K with the following exceptions: E-Z 
Draw requires a 48K Apple with Applesoft in ROM (or a 64K Apple II or 
II +) Pascal Graphics Editor requires an Apple II or 11+ with Language 
System. 







■ 


mm 






m 





FOR YOUR APPLE 



□ Leonardo Da Vinci was a man ahead 
of his time. An inventor, engineer, ex- 
perimental scientist, as well as artist, Da 
Vinci was drawing pictures of flying ma- 
chines and designing armored combat 
vehicles when he was also creating some 
of the greatest artwork of all time. No 
doubt he would have found a computer 
useful if it had been around in the six- 
teenth century. 

Da Vinci didn't have the benefit of 
modern technology, but he would prob- 
ably approve of the work of a couple of 
scientists today who are using a comput- 
er to uncover some of the hidden secrets 
of his own painting, the Mona Lisa. 

Dr. John Asmus, manager of the laser 
laboratory at Maxwell laboratory in San 
Diego, California, and Dr. Carlo Pedret- 
ti, professor of art history at the Univer- 
sity of California at Los Angeles, have 
teamed up to apply technological ad- 
vances to the arts. With the help of a com- 
puter, they've proven that the Mona Lisa 
in the Louvre looks very different from 
Da Vinci's original. It's still the same 
painting, but a yellow varnish, which was 
applied long ago by art restorationists to 
preserve it, has significantly altered the 
original colors over the years and has 
covered up some important details. 

Asmus said he and Pedretti were in- 
terested in what the Mona Lisa looked 
like before the varnish dulled the colors, 
so they employed methods NASA uses to 
touch up photos of Jupiter and Saturn. 
They first had a high-resolution, large 
format photograph taken of the Louvre 
Mona Lisa. The photograph was flown to 
the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasa- 
dena for image processing on their com- 
puters. The photo was divided into five 
million squares, and the intensity of the 
colors was measured in each region, pro- 
ducing a magnetic tape with all the digi- 
tal information needed by the computer. 
The computer then gave them a simu- 
lated picture of what the Mona Lisa 
would look like if all the varnish were 
peeled away. 

The sky in the painting turned from 
brown to blue in the cleaned-up version, 
and the color of Mona Lisa's skin turned 
from brown to alabaster. Pedretti is also 
interested in the veil Mona Lisa is wear- 
ing on her head and over her shoulders. 
There are details underneath the veil that 
are beginning to show up as the dense 
areas of the painting are lightened. 

The project probably never would 
have been attempted without a compu- 
ter, which provided a rapid and conve- 
nient way to take off the varnish without 



having to touch the original picture, says 
Asmus. He and Pedretti plan to do more 
sophisticated filtering to bring up the in- 
tensity of the dark areas in hopes of dis- 
covering further secrets of the Mona 
Lisa. 

Asked why the Mona Lisa was so spe- 
cial in comparison to some of Da Vinci's 
other works, and why it caused so much 
hoopla among art lovers, Asmus de- 
ferred to the opinion of his colleague, 
Carlo Pedretti, a prominent Da Vinci 
scholar. According to Asmus, Pedretti 
has said that "the Mona Lisa is not his fa- 
vorite painting, and that some of Da Vin- 
ci's other works are far superior." 
□ Students can get into the colleges of 
their choice now — even the expensive 
ones— with the help of the computerized 
National Scholarship Research Service. 
Daniel Cassidy of San Rafael, Califor- 
nia, who started the service two years 
ago, employs fourteen Apple computers 
that specialize in matching students with 
little-known, off-beat scholarships. 

For example, the $500 Kenneth 
Gunter Fellowship is waiting for a stu- 
dent at the University of Arizona; appli- 
cant must have a good academic record 
and be able to rope cattle. There are also 
funds available for left-handed people at 
Juniata College in Pennsylvania, for sons 
and daughters of fishermen at Tufts, and 
for students of Polish ancestry from the 
Kosciuszko Foundation of New York 
City. 

The service lists 50,000 private grants 
offered by corporations, trust and 
memorial funds, religious groups, and 
unions, with awards ranging from $300 to 
$20,000 for four years in college. For a $35 
fee, Cassidy sends students a brief ques- 
tionnaire from which his computer will 
come up with thirty to fifty private 
sources of money each student can apply 
for and stand a good chance of getting. 

Cassidy, who financed his own col- 
lege education with scholarships and 
grants, says there's approximately a bil- 
lion dollars in financial resources avail- 
able for students from the private sec- 
tor; last year, about $140 million dollars 
in grants were never claimed. But with 
the government's proposed cuts in feder- 
al student loans and scholarships ahead, 
Cassidy emphasized, students can't af- 
ford to let these private-sector sources of 
funds go untapped. 

Most of the grants are easy to get, and 
many do not require financial need or 
good grades. As a matter of fact, the 
United States Office of Education offers a 
grant for students who "must be charac- 




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SOCTAI ¥ 



OCTOBER 1981 



terized as academic risks for college edu- 
cation." 

□ Apple Inc. It almost seems as if 
they've defied the laws of nature; they 
most certainly have defied the laws of 
business. Apple Computer recently re- 
leased their third quarter profit and sales 
improvement report, showing a rise in 
net income to $11.9 million or $.21 per 
share, compared to $2.7 million or $.06 
per share in the same quarter last year. 
This is a 334 percent profit increase on a 
179 percent sales gain for the third quar- 
ter of fiscal 1981 over the comparable 
1980 period. 

"Gratifying," is how Mike Markkula, 
Apple's president and chief executive of- 
ficer, describes the increased sales vol- 
ume and the overall momentum of his 
company. In spite of the negative pres- 
sures of high interest rates and a lack- 
luster economy, demand is remaining 
strong as Apple moves into the last quar- 
ter of fiscal 1981, notes a pleased Mark- 
kula. 

The stock figures are also defying eco- 
nomic law, according to a recent article 
in Apple Times, the in-house journal for 
Apple employees, which reports that the 
secondary stock offering in early June 
triggered a six-dollar rise in the value of 
Apple stock. VP-general counsel Al 
Eisenstat explained that approximately 
three million shares of stock were ab- 
sorbed into the market immediately, and 



the price continued to rise after the sale 
was completed. The trading price of Ap- 
ple stock rose from $27 a few weeks be- 
fore the offering to $33 after the sale. The 
sale did not bring capital into Apple but 
provided an opportunity for a number of 
employees to sell stock acquired under 
stock option programs. 
□ When IBM finally unveiled its entry in 
the micro market in August, Newsweek 
(August 24) headlined its announce- 
ment, "IBM wants a bite of the Apple." 
Xerox also reserved a seat on the band- 
wagon recently, but Mike Markkula 
doesn't seem worried. 

Apple anticipates far more vigorous 
competition coming up from proven da- 
ta processing companies, Markkula 
says. "We feel their presence will stimu- 
late worldwide demand for the products 
that Apple originated and in which it spe- 
cializes." 

Some of the latest figures from Mark- 
kula show more than two hundred fifty 
thousand Apples in use — an installed 
base that "drives an enormous amount of 
applications software and contributes to 
the growth of our industry," he says. 

Apple research and development ex- 
penditures in the current quarter in- 
creased to $5.5 million from $2.2 million 
last year. Markkula believes programs 
related to advanced microcomputer 
hardware and software will also rein- 
force Apple's position in this expanding 



Soft- Core 



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Mjcr0 Computer 
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The "Dirty Book" will expose your 
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tip* 

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Pictured above is the cover Illustration of our premiere issue. 



field. The executive says the company is 
firmly committed to the Apple III, which 
he calls "an excellent system whose mar- 
ket will develop more rapidly as addi- 
tional software, now in the process of 
completion, becomes available." 

□ In the meantime, Apple continues to 
grow. Production started in early July at 
a new 125,000-square-foot assembly plant 
in Singapore. Logic boards, analog cards, 
and disk interfaces for both the Ireland 
and United States assembly plants are 
now being turned out. By 1982, Apple 
Singapore will be producing Apple II 
Pluses, disk drives, and printers. 

Here in the United States, Apple 
opened a sales office last May in New 
York City to meet the demand for Apple 
systems in New York and northern New 
Jersey; a month later, the southeast 
sales region opened the doors of an At- 
lanta office. And not to forget Sunnyvale, 
California, in the valley where it all start- 
ed in the first place (ho ho ho) : Plans are 
also underway to open two new buildings 
in nearby Cupertino — Bandley V and 
Bandley VI. 

□ No question about it — Apple is grow- 
ing fast. But are they growing too fast for 
their own good? Not in the opinion of the 
Peninsula Chapter of the Stanford Busi- 
ness School Alumni Association. Citing 
"superior management of rapid growth" 
over the past three years, they have 
named Apple Computer the Entre- 
preneurial Company of 1981. 

Some other growth figures from the 
company to ponder: For the first nine 
months of fiscal 1981, Apple earned $28.5 
million or 51 cents per share, compared 
with $8.2 million or 17 cents per share last 
year. Sales for the nine months in- 
creased to $237.1 million from $75.7 mil- 
lion in fiscal 1980. Apple's profit margin 
before taxes rose to 26 percent of net 
sales in the third quarter of fiscal 1981, up 
from 23 percent in the second. This 
change, explains Markkula, reflects low- 
er prices for semiconductor components 
and generally improved Apple manufac- 
turing efficiencies and reduced empha- 
sis on pass-through sales of non-Apple 
peripheral products. 

Stockholders' equity in Apple 
amounted to $164.1 million at the end of 
the third quarter, compared with $19.8 
million a year earlier. Total assets were 
$222.3 million, compared to $41.7 million 
at the end of the fiscal 1980 third quarter. 

□ Selective Computers. Computers 
aren't going to escape the draft, either. 
Selective Service officials in Washington 
say that, if the draft is revived, a single 
national computer will go into action. The 
computer will perform most of the duties 
formerly carried out by local boards, 
keeping all the records of potential draft- 
ees who register. Those to be drafted will 
be selected by random lottery by the 
computer. The Selective Service be- 
lieves draft notices can be sent out in two 
days if Washington makes an emergen- 
cy decision under the new system. ui 



p^f r??ffffffffiff?m?ff?iffTfiffffnnHffifffifffiffifffffffftit««*«t»tttnt*jTtitfMf^ 




All You Ever Need To Spend 




•.«®®@ 
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•••••• 

•••••• 

•••••• 

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TITLE: "THE PROGRAM WRITER/REPORTER " iiiiS 

Enables ANYONE to write complete, running, debugged BASIC LANGUAGE Pro- A No, the resulting programs will be sophisticated and extremely fast operating. | 

grams in 35 to 40 minutes with NO PRIOR PROGRAMMING KNOWLEDGE OR For example, should you create a mailing list or inventory program, the time for any 4 

ABILITY. record to be retrieved and displayed from a full disc would take a maximum of • 

IF you are one of the many who bought a microcomputer in the belief that with 1 second. J 

just a little studying you could write your own programs, you now know that you Q Must the programs produced conform to a pre determined format and file ( 

can't. length'' 4 

IF you, as a businesman, thought you could have stock software modified at a A No, you determine format and file size to fit your requirements | 

reasonable cost with reasonable results, you know that's not possible either. I 

IF you are a hobbyist getting tired of the untold hours it takes to write a program, Q Can I develop my own business programs 9 I 

only to find it takes more hours to debug than to write. A yes. 4 

IF you are a skilled programmer you don't have to be reminded of the repetitious Q What are the limitations'' What programs can I produce with THE PROGRAM J 

time spent'on each new application. WRITER/REPORTER' 7 j 

IF you have left your micro-computer sitting somewhere gathering dust . . . meet A Your own ingenuity and hardware limitations. 100's of different programs. | 

THE PROGRAM WRITER/REPORTER' . TECHNICAL ASPECTS J 

THE PROGRAM WRITER/REPORTER' is not just another data base generator The Reporter Package • makes reports your way 2 

THE PROGRAM WRITER/REPORTER' , at your direction, makes complete run- Record access by a hashing algorithm guaranteeing fast record retrieval. | 

ning programs that are thoroughly documented, easy to modify at any time by YOU' Duplicate keys permitted. • 

THE PROGRAM WRITER/REPORTER' cuts programming time up to 90% for a Record deletion automatically supported. i 

skilled programmer. Record access and file maintenance is user transparent. J 

THE PROGRAM WRITER/REPORTER" will make anyone a skilled programmer in Minimal disc overhead since there is no special assembly language routine call- ( 

30 to 35 minutes! ed. No "Basic" overhead. J 

THE PROGRAM WRITER/REPORTER' does the work! You can answer the simple Programs produced can be transported between 6800, 6502, 8080, Z80, 8085, 8086 2 

direct questions and THE PROGRAM WRITER/REPORTER' CREATES. AND ALL and Z8000 based systems 4 

IN BASIC LANGUAGE. Can be used with Micro-Soft Basic and CP/M systems. I 

Q. After THE PROGRAM WRITER/REPORTER" has produced a program, can it be Complete file maintenance including up-date of any record in any field, delete J 

modified? and add new records even with duplicate key. 2 

A. Yes, the resulting program is modular, fully documented and readily accessible | 

for alterations or deletions. 4] 

Q. Does the program created use so much disc space that there is very little space J 

left for the record storage? | 

A. No, the code produced is extremely compact despite complete documentation g 

If requested THE PROGRAM WRITER/REPORTER' will even "pack " or compress f \ f 

information. You may even delete the "remarks" making it even more space / \ • »• a tjs»±. * i 

efficient ( )\A\ffl OX/P^ X 

Q. Must I be expert or even conversant with Basic Language? ~ ~ ~ 3 ~ ▼# \m I LN/ ▼ I 

A. No, all questions to and answers from the operator require no computer ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 

language knowledge, simple every day English will do. .... ■ 800-255-5119 J 

Q. What about math ability? VlWI 2 

A. If you can count your fingers and toes, you'll have no problems. Inf/\rm-jf!nn Inr , nMy ,• n rv I J d L ire LLtn/t 4 

Q. Will the programs which I produce with THE PROGRAM WRITER/REPORTER" iniUlHldUUII HIV. 7899 MaStin Ur. UVeriaiW Ym Kb bblW #< 
( be bulky, slow or amateurish? 



OCTOBER 1981 



83 



"Enter the gamemaster's mansion 
and step into the future. ..." The door- 
keeper's words as he welcomes you to 
this remarkable building are not fluff. 
Architecturally, the sprawling, elaborate 
Victorian house smacks of decadent, 
long-ago grandeur; but everything else 
about it speaks of the future. 

The first sign of the future is the ad- 
dress, not of the company, but of the 
house itself. You won't find this mansion 
on any street, boulevard, or lane. You 
can't reach it by foot or car. It resides in 
the mind of a computer, and you go there 
by way of your modem. Your key is a 
membership in GameMaster. 

As soon as you connect with the man- 
sion, a doorkeeper checks your account 
number and password, then ushers you 
in. He announces your arrival on the 
mansion's public address system, and 
any visitors now in the house see the an- 
nouncement on their monitors. If you 
like, you may look at the guest book, 
which tells you all the members who are 
in the house when you get there. You're 
also invited to send a message over the 
PA if you wish. This is your chance to 
say, "I'm looking for someone to play 
board games. Meet me in the parlor if 
you're interested." 

Checking the Premises. Your entry 
accomplished, you're on your own in the 
foyer. You're free to wander through the 
house, up and down hallways and stairs, 
or to portal to any room you choose — a 
process resembling beaming up in "Star- 
trek." 

In each room, you may choose a room 
description. The descriptions bring per- 
sonality and color, teasing your mind's 
eye with images of warm hearths, musty 
books, high ceilings, and oaken splendor. 
In the final testing stages is a driver that 
will enable Apple owners to see the house 
in animated hi-res. 

The mansion has thirty-nine rooms 
and six stories. An entire floor is devoted 
to game rooms. The rooms on the other 
floors offer services, information, and 
other activities in which you can partici- 
pate. 

The library holds books that describe 
all the rooms, and on the library balcony 
you'll find rules to all the games. There's 
a classroom where you can take vocabu- 
lary practice in any of three languages, 
do math exercises, play a geographical 
word search, or check your spelling. 

You can look at star charts in the ob- 
servatory — a broad-scoped room that al- 
so offers you a monthly horoscope read- 
ing that's less detailed than Sydney 
Omarr, and a biorhythm that's probably 
accurate. 

In the kitchen, you'll find recipes to 
peruse and use, and you can add some to 
the collection, if you like. Next door, the 
greenhouse offers tips on raising happy, 
healthy potted plants. 

Visit the darkroom for advice about 
photography, and leave questions or sug- 
gestions of your own for others. 



The main piece of furniture in the bed- 
room is — not a bed — but an alarm clock, 
through which you can arrange to have 
the gamemaster signal you when a mem- 
ber arrives, wanting to play the game 
you've been waiting for, or wake you 
when you want to get up. 

With the appropriate driver, you can 
listen to music and compose some of your 
own in the conservatory. The gallery of- 
fers similar pleasures in the realm of art 
and graphics. 

Getting Down to the Business of Fun. 
But the backbone of GameMaster is, of 
course, the games. Eight rooms house 
games, divided by category. There's the 
arcade for quick-point games ; club room 
for cards; board room for backgammon, 
chess, and the like ; state room for games 
of politics, diplomacy, and strategy; war 
room for war games; and the locker 
room for a super baseball game and foot- 
ball. Then there's the time room, for 
games of the future— a special and fasci- 

BY 
HARCOT 
(OriSTOCK 
TOMMERVIK 

nating category — and the engine room, a 
sleeper among the game rooms that of- 
fers one of the mansion's most popular 
multiplayer games — Twelve Wheeler — a 
trucking game in which the goal is to 
profit from transporting goods from one 
city to another. 

Prizes, usually in the form of system 
user credits, are given for high scores 
over a period of time in some games, and 
extra credits are often hidden in the 
house. 

Each game room has an alcove to 
which you repair to find opponents and 
from which you enter the playing area. 
Members can converse in the alcoves. 

But no alcove precedes the cold stone 
steps leading down into the chamber. 
Here, below the game rooms, deep be- 
low the mansion, in twisted, dank hall- 
ways, lie the catacombs, caverns, and 
gamemaster's den. Each of these is a 
separate and unique adventure game, al- 
though the catacombs and caverns tie in 
with each other; to gain entrance to the 
caverns, you must find a key in the cata- 
combs. 

Hi-res graphics drivers are available 
for both catacombs and caverns. The 
catacombs are a giant maze of con- 
voluted corridors — a great place to 
learn mapping. The caverns are not as 
twisty and turny, but they're packed with 
wonderfully vicious monsters who guard 
finely-detailed, hi-res treasure. The 
gamemaster reports at least one mem- 



ber who has spent sixty hours in the cav- 
erns — all via modem. 

A Future Where Apples Run Er- 
rands. Many of the services provided 
enable you to avoid running errands or 
doing tedious chores. (Unfortunately, the 
module that provides for a maid and but- 
ler to step through your monitor and 
clean your house isn't running yet.) 

Other services in operation, in the 
works, or in negotiation include a car 
pool bulletin board in the garage, com- 
plete with up-to-the-second local traffic 
reports; do-it-yourself hotel and Ticket- 
ron-type reservation services; instant 
weather news; and general late news 
with thorough coverage of the computer 
world. 

Some rooms are much less popular 
than others, and some have fallen prey to 
governmental interference. The banquet 
room, for example, was intended for ex- 
changing dining-out information. But 
when GameMaster asked the local res- 
taurant association for a base restaurant 
list—which the GM staff felt was essen- 
tial to getting the room started proper- 
ly — the request was refused, so the room 
may be abandoned for the present. 

Making Friends by Modem. Perhaps 
the most unique rooms in the mansion 
are those in which members can visit 
each other. The parlor is open territory. 
Anyone may enter the parlor anytime 
and, if others are present, they may con- 
verse. A typeahead buffer makes it pos- 
sible for one person to be heard while 
others are typing in their comments, 
which will be heard in turn. This works 
out to be quite conversational, although 
talking on the offbeat takes some getting 
used to. 

The three conference rooms require 
permission to enter when conferences 
are in session. Members may reserve 
conference rooms for actual private 
meetings, or they may announce a topic 
and invite others to join in. Unlike the 
parlor conversation, dialogue in the con- 
ference rooms is private. 

Popular also is the mailroom — and 
it's real. Regular members get a private 
numbered mailbox, complete with right- 
left-right combination, with member- 
ship. 

The People Who Make It Happen. 

"I've been a game player forever," says 
chief gamemaster and founder Harlow 
Stevens. Even as a child, it wasn't just 
play he enjoyed, but the strategy, in- 
tricacy, and infinite variety of gaming. 

Stevens studied electronics in high 
school, and it isn't surprising that this in- 
terest, combined with his love of gam- 
ing, led him to work in a computer store 
after that. It was at a college fraternity 
reunion that the idea for GameMaster 
was conceived. 

Stevens, Bob Kniskern, who was then 
a television repairman, and Paul Martin 
had all become fans of microcomputers. 
At the reunion, they agreed that they all 
wanted to make games for the com- 



84 



gsmn 



OCTOBER 1981 



puter, but they were competitors as well 
as gamers, and they enjoyed interaction 
with people as well as with computers. So 
they weren't satisfied with the play for- 
mat possible on the computer. Good 
games wouldn't work for two; players 
would have to turn away during the other 
players' turns. 

"So we had to make a gaming net- 
work," says Stevens. With several moni- 
tors involved and players at least a build- 
ing — if not a continent — apart, players 
can take their turns simultaneously and 
secretly, with only the outcomes shown. 

"The rooms and the house came from 
needing a medium for the games." 

Thus was GameMaster born. 

Willingness To Work Overcame Set- 
backs. After months of development, 
Stevens, Kniskern, and Martin were 
ready to unveil their brainchild. In the 
very week they opened for business, 
another announcement excited the per- 
sonal computer world: it was called The 
Source. It offered many of the services 
GameMaster planned, without the fun. 
But The Source predominated, took the 
thunder, accepted the kudos and sales, 
and promptly proved unable to keep up 
with demand. (The Source, too, has since 
overcome these problems.) Disgruntled 
Source customers wrote the service off 
because they couldn't get through to use 
it; the phone was always busy. 

But GameMaster had already been 
lost in the crowd. 

Icwer. Ifva 



It wasn't until a writer for Interface 
Age happened to hear of GameMaster 
and wrote it up for the magazine that 
business began to pick up and Stevens 
could justify devoting full time to the ser- 
vice. And full time to Stevens means just 
that: "I spend thirteen to eighteen hours 
a day, seven days a week, here," he says. 

"Here" is a modest office in the Chi- 
cago suburb of Evanston, Illinois, hous- 
ing the 272K Alpha Micro on which the 
mansion runs. By its side sits a happy Ap- 
ple running a separate GameMaster 
ABBS. The Apple performs two other im- 
portant functions. Around the clock, it's 
the mansion's best advertisement; 15 
percent of the GameMaster members 
hear of the mansion through chance calls 
to the bulletin board. 

The Apple's more important func- 
tion — although it's seldom called upon to 
perform it — is to back up the Alpha. 
Should the GameMaster system go down 
when Stevens isn't nearby, GM staff in 
Fort Wayne, Indiana, can telephone the 
Apple and have it reset the system. 

Back Home in Indiana. And Fort 
Wayne is precisely where most of the 
GameMaster staff hangs out — most no- 
tably cofounder Paul Martin. Martin, an 
optimistic, outgoing person who draws 
out the sunshine in others ("You could talk 
to a dead man, and he'd talk back," his 
dad once told him), is an Apple owner 
and enthusiast. He and the Fort Wayne 
staff members still work only part time 






on GameMaster, doing development and 
programming on Apples that simulate 
the Alpha Micro. 

Although he helped set up GameMas- 
ter as a game network, Martin doesn't 
see games as the main purpose of the 
system. 

"The mansion isn't a house ; it's a phi- 
losophy. It's intended to appeal to — and it 
does — people who understand where the 
world is going and are helping it get 
there." Martin would like to see the net- 
work become a medium for the ex- 
change of ideas and developing pro- 
grams. "These are the people who can 
take the full power of the micro and use it 
to improve the world." 

Stevens adds to these thoughts: "One 
of our major functions is making the 
computer humanistic and easy to use. A 
key to this is that we don't take ourselves 
too seriously, and we have fun." 

Certainly the GameMaster member- 
ship has fun. Fifteen to twenty members 
visit the mansion each day on the eight 
phone lines. The favorite rooms of the 
visitors are the games, the mailroom, 
and, happily, the parlor. 

Among GameMaster members, the 
youngest is thirteen, the eldest in her six- 
ties. Right now there are more mem- 
bers in their teens and twenties than in 
any other age range, but the thirties and 
forties crowd is catching up. 

Apples Abound. And, although Game- 
Master will work with any microcom- 

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puter with a compatible modem, 70 per- 
cent of the members have Apples. Be- 
sides the fact that the mansion was de- 
signed with the Apple in mind, Stevens 
accounts for the profusion of Apples in a 
couple of ways. People who scrimp and 
save to buy a computer often end up with 
TRS-80s or Atari 400s because of the low 
prices, he says, and, once they've got the 
computer, they've spent all they can. 
And those who can afford peripherals 
usually don't choose a modem. "If TRS- 
80 had a modem that went with it as nice- 
ly as the Micromodem goes with Ap- 
ples," Stevens suggests, "more would get 
one." 

Stevens expects an influx of new 
members from the sales of the new IBM 
and the Osborne microcomputers. Those 
two are designed for business, and soft- 
ware for entertainment is nil. Owners 
and users will turn to GameMaster for 
games. 

With systems like Sprint springing up 
and cutting the cost of long distance tele- 
phoning, more people are able to join 
GameMaster from outside the Chicago 
area. Even so, GameMaster's own plans 
for a network that serves local needs are 
spurring Stevens, Kniskern, and Martin 
toward opening local GameMasters in 
other cities. The most convenient first 
step in that direction is to set up a second 
system in Fort Wayne because of the im- 
mediate accessibility of staff; that one 
should open in the next couple of months. 

4th Roor 



getting people to play with other people. 
People on GameMaster act just the way 
they might at a party: extroverts will 
join in; introverts will not." But Stevens 
doesn't think it has to be that way, so he's 
instituted a number of programs to en- 
courage everyone to participate. 

Among these is the happy hour; from 
four to six each afternoon, rates are 
halved in the parlor. Tournaments are 
another kind of mixer, such as a back- 
gammon tournament. And, what is prob- 
ably most effective of all, Harlow Stev- 
ens is almost always there himself for 
members to play games with or visit 
with. 

That the ideas and innovations are 
working and that people are beginning to 




0bSt«WTO1W 


U DIVINATION 


top floor. 


i 



By the middle of 1982, the company hopes 
to have built mansions in six or seven 
midwest cities. Whether to franchise, 
lease, or merely hire staff for the new lo- 
cations is still a question. 

Imagination and a New Face Move 
GM Forward. Meanwhile, GameMaster 
is not sitting still. The hi-res drivers are 
less than a month old, and a music driver 
for the conservatory is brand-new. More 
hi-res will be forthcoming from the new- 
est face at GameMaster, talented 
graphics artist John Grosjean. In addi- 
tion, the messenger driver for the bed- 
room will soon enable members to sign 
up for games, leave a schedule of times 
when their systems will be up, and have 
the big clock set off alarms in their Ap- 
ples when competitors are ready to play. 
The same driver will make it possible to 
write letters off-line and drop them in the 
system later. 

Game lover Stevens expects this fa- 
cility to offset a sort of problem. "The 
single most frustrating aspect of this is 



think of the gamemaster's mansion as a 
comfortable, fun place is evident in a new 
phenomenon. Sometimes members don't 
have time to play a game, says Stevens, 
but "they'll stop in just for a few minutes 
to chat." 

Isn't that what makes a house a 
home? 31 
How You Can Join GameMaster. For the 

$65 full membership in GameMaster, you get 
360 credits (each credit is a minute of house 
time); a mailbox for five months; and a 
GameMaster notebook with maps, descrip- 
tions, and game rules. A la carte membership 
costs $10; then time, mailbox, and documenta- 
tion are extra. If you spend more than $65 as 
an a la carte member, you are automatically 
made a full member with all attendant rights 
and privileges. 



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86 



WUTAI V 



OCTOBER 1981 




Impressions 



from page 64 . _ 

create mountains and valleys of varying slope by using a pad- 
dle to designate terrain height. You generate twenty-one 
frames of terrain, which are then saved to the disk for later 
use. Make terrain as difficult as you want. High mountains and 
low valleys give more protection to enemy installations. Not 
only that— now you can't avoid the deadly eagles and saucers 
and have to maneuver as well as shoot, drop, and dodge. If 
you're a closet jet fighter pilot, Pegasus will get you off the 
ground. $29.95. 

□ Word Handler. By Leonard Elekman, Silicon Valley Soft- 
ware (Redwood City, CA). Convenient for editors, a dream 
come true for writers, and useful for anybody who wants an 
easy-to-use word processing program. One of the most appeal- 
ing features of the program is that it starts its user writing im- 
mediately. Silicon Valley Software has come out with a 
manual so simple that it promises "to have you capable of 
doing useful work with the Word Handler in ten minutes." The 
manual is written in a straightforward style, with the informa- 
tion of first importance taking up just a few pages in step-by- 
step simplified text. People impatient with manuals might 
take as long as eleven minutes to wade through it. 

Word Handler has some nice features : punching a few keys 
will change the text into bold face, underline, or produce su- 
perscript; hitting control N (for normal) will return it to regu- 
lar text. Single words, individual lines, or entire pages can be 
deleted almost instantly with other simple commands. Text 
can be copied from anywhere in the document, saved internal- 
ly until needed, and then placed at the position of the cursor by 
making two more commands. Blocks of text may be moved 
from one place to another by using a combined form of the 
copy command. Word Handler can also be used for printing 
newsletters or making a very professional- looking book. It can 
be set up to allow folded paper printout by making mirror 
image margins (two-sided printing). 

The program uses a hi-res character display with sixty-six 
characters on a line. Unfortunately, the letters M and W on two 
different video monitor screens came out as little more than a 
white blob; the M is really bad. You can distinguish between 
these two letters, however; so depending on how fussy you are, 
it might not make much of a difference; and, of course, it 
prints out clearly. Word Handler is a writer's dream— almost. 
DOS 3.2 or 3.3. $249.00. 

□ Universal Boot Initializer. S & H Software (Manvel, ND) . If 
your Apple has a Language System or ROMCard, you must 
boot your system master or your Basics disk to use the al- 
ternative Basic language. No big deal, you say; but it is a bit of 
a bore to wait for it to load. S & H Software has the solution. 

A disk initialized with the Universal Boot Initializer boots 
apparently as fast as any disk that's running only a simple 
Hello program in the process. But, in that quick boot, it loads 
the second Basic. 

So if there's an Integer game you love playing on your Plus 
(or vice versa) , you can init a disk with UBI and transfer the 
game onto it; you'll never have to boot your master to run the 
Integer game again. If the program is 3.2 as well, and you have 
3.3, never fear. UBI gives you the choice of DOSs. 

With UBI, you can initialize disks in DOS 3.3 or 3.2, in In- 
teger or Applesoft, and with either or both languages ready to 
load instantly on the disk. 

Nor need you worry about the quality of the DOS with which 
your disks are being initialized. S & H has licensed DOS 3.2, 



DOS 3.3, IntBasic and FPBasic, and the update programs di- 
rectly from Apple, so you're getting the real thing. 

The secret of the speed is S & H's own addition to these stan- 
dard Apple programs: Quick-Boot. It does what it says, and, if 
you've room on a disk for it, it's well worth putting there. And, 
if you do nothing else with it, you'll want to keep a UBI initted 
disk by your Apple to use in place of your master when you 
need your alternative language. $40. 

□ Apple Pascal: A Hands-On Approach. By Arthur Luehr- 
mann and Herbert Peckham, McGraw-Hill (New York, NY). 
Aside from the manuals that come with the language sys- 
tem—which are less helpful to the Pascal beginner than one 
might wish them to be— this is the first Pascal text that deals 
specifically with that language's implementation on the Ap- 
ple. It's a bright, witty, admirably lucid text that teaches not 
only Pascal and the Apple Pascal operating system, but pro- 
gramming as well. As its subtitle suggests, the book requires 
attendance at an Apple. Luehrmann and Peckham start the 
reader off with simple procedures that do interesting things, 
moving quickly from elementary Writeln statements to sim- 
ple graphics and sound generation routines. An attitude of ex- 
perimentation is encouraged throughout. This is a refreshing 
text. $14.95. 

□ 32 Basic Programs for the Apple Computer. By Tom Rugg 
and Phil Feldman, dilithium Press (Beaverton, OR). If you 
like to learn from other people's programs, but you're tired of 
translating Brand-X Basic into Applesoft, this may be a book 
for you. All thirty-two programs run on the Apple. They cover 
a range of themes, from handy household applications to dif- 
ferential equations. There are some educational programs 
suitable for school-age children and some graphics pro- 
grams—of high res and low— that will instruct the novice pro- 
grammer. Each program is a chapter complete with discus- 
sion, summary of variables and their functions, and sugges- 
tions for customization. 16K minimum for all programs. 
$17.95. 

□ The Basic Handbook: Encyclopedia of the Basic Computer 
Language. By David A. Lien, Compusoft Publishing (San Diego, 
CA) . This is essentially a dictionary and thesaurus of Basic — a 
handy tool to have if you need to wrestle with program listings 
in foreign dialects. Basic-speaking computers from four conti- 
nents are covered in a format that includes definitions, 
synonyms, illustrative test programs, alternate spellings, vari- 
ations in spelling, and cross references to related commands. 
$19.95. 

□ Bez Wars. By John Besnard, Bez (Irvine, CA). Yup. It's 
another Bez game. This one is a chaotic free-for-all where two 
players fire lasers from mobile missile launchers at opposite 
ends of the screen. A warlike blend of football and Space In- 
vaders seems to have inspired Bez Wars. You need two to play 
this game. A paddle moves your rocket launcher across the 
bottom of the screen while your opponent moves across the 
top. Each player has a small squad of what we shall call Bez 
soldiers, since football players don't have to defend them- 
selves against rockets. 

With the two armies of Bez soldiers squared off against 
each other, players try to knock one another off. Ideally you 
want to hit your opponent's rocket launcher, which is protect- 
ed by Bez soldiers who march back and forth across the 
screen. Hitting the soldiers wipes them out and gives you small 
points. 

To keep the game spacy, every now and then a flying 



OCTOBER 1981 



S O C T A L K 



87 



saucer hovers across the fifty-yard line, annihilating any Bez 
soldiers in its way. It's a race to see who will shoot the saucer 
for bonus points. 

It's hard to tell if it's better to fire continuously at random 
or aim carefully. A wild flurry of rockets will kill your own Bez 
men but is more likely to land a fatal blow on your opponent's 
rocket launcher. 

Skill doesn't seem to make much difference with Bez Wars. 
It's a perfect game for a giddy mood when a chaotic little war 
will help. You'll laugh trying to figure out how you won or lost. 
Children especially will enjoy this game. $26.95. 

□ The Cube. By Patricia Shanahan, Midkemia Press (San 
Diego, CA). Make no mistake, the cube is complicated. You 
start out with a large cube composed of twenty-seven smaller 
blocks. Each of the six faces of the large cube is a different col- 
or—purple, orange, blue, black, white or green. The colors are 
actually on the face of the smaller blocks. You can rotate any 
one face of the large cube in a clockwise direction, which will 
mix up the color pattern of the blocks, so that with a few moves 
your large cube will look like a patchwork quilt. The object, 
then, is to restore your cube to order, with any one of its six 
faces the same color. 

If you've seen Rubik's Cube, you'll know this game. The 
Rubik's Cube itself could take months to solve; in fact, when a 
paperback book appeared with a formula for solving Rubik's 
secret, people rushed to snatch the book from the bestseller 
racks. 

The computer version requires a stronger imagination, not 
only because you cannot physically manipulate the blocks, but 
because any move you make rotates the position of nine 
blocks. Have fun pulling your hair out. The cube is for devo- 
tees of hard-core brain teasers. 

Who knows? Patricia Shanahan may live to see someone 
write a program to solve her puzzle, if she doesn't beat them to 
it. $19.95. 

□ The Wurst of Huntington Computing. By Fred Huntington 
(Corcoran, CA) . When was the last time you took a pickyness 
test? How about a compatibility test with your best 
friend/worst enemy? All this and much more is possible in the 
Wurst of Huntington Computing. The Wurst supplies just 
that — some of the worst jokes you'll ever see on a disk, but also 
some whimsical satire — provided you can laugh at yourself. 

There are eight categories to pick from: openness test, un- 
intelligence test, chauvinism test, observation test, nighttime 
fortune fantasy, pickyness test, Chinese horoscope, and the 
compatibility test. You are then instructed to pick a number 
for the program you want and leave the room before it comes 
up. If you don't make it in time, you may have to take the 
pickyness test. Here you rate yourself on a series of items such 
as, "When I butter toast it must be buttered all the way to the 
edges evenly," and "Do you feel it is important to dust the tops 
of books at least twice a year in your library?" 

If your party needs a good conversation starter, or you'd 
like to analyze your marriage or test your powers of observa- 
tion, the Wurst of Huntington Computing might be for you. At 
its very best it'll provide some good laughs; at its very wurst 
you can always leave the room. $19.95. 

□ Quick-Text-Editor. By Seaport Software (San Diego, CA). 
Since Quick-Text-Editor is an editing program only and not a 
word processor, it's well worth its $24.95 price. But if you try to 
make it do more than it's capable of doing, you'll probably 
wish you had forked out an extra hundred bucks for an elabo- 
rate word-processing program. Quick-Text-Editor purports to 
be an editing program only, and it does some functions rather 
well. A delete line command allows you to remove lines of text 
from your current file in two different ways : specified can be 
used to delete a known range such as lines 12 to 32 ; the global 
option allows you to step through the entire file, starting at any 
line number, and delete or retain each line — one at a time. 
Other functions include fast search and replace and configura- 
tion for either forty-column or eighty-column display. QTE has 



most of the standard functions needed to handle most text writ- 
ing and editing needs. $24.95. 

□ Galaxy Gates, by Eric Popejoy, Magna Soft (Los Angeles, 
CA) . Galaxy Gates is a nifty entry for a new company— Mag- 
na Soft. One of an arcade series, this one involves your ship try- 
ing to blast through three concentric rings to kill an enemy at 
the center of the circles. 

Using a paddle to steer your ship and either paddle but- 
tons or the keyboard to fire, this is a fast moving, well-ex- 
ecuted game that's faithful to the genre. 

Adding to the involvement are enemy sorties out from the 
rings as well as a force field that won't permit you to sit in next 
to the circles and fire away. 

Dexterity and wit, rather than brute force, are needed to 
stay alive. 

A nice touch is the recording in memory of the top ten 
scores achieved at a sitting. Alas, they're not written to disk, so 
you'll never be able to prove to Uncle Josh in Joplin how good 
you've gotten. $24.95. 

□ Planet Protector, by Eric Popejoy, Magna Soft, Los Ange- 
les, CA. Planet Protector is another in a series of arcade 
games from Magna Soft. 

In this one, the player takes control of three gun emplace- 
ments and attempts to shoot missiles out of the sky to protect 
his six cities. This version has the same player constraint as a 
previous version, in that your gun emplacements have limited 
ammunition— so you'd best use it wisely. 

Play is with a joystick for aiming and the f-g-h keys on the 
keyboard for triggering your weapons. 

As with other Magna Soft product, it's a day late, being at 
least the third similar program to hit the Apple market. The 
quality of programming, animation, and graphics deserves to 
be in a game that's first on the market. $34.95. 

□ Cross Clues. Science Research Associates (Chicago, IL). In 
Cross Clues, two players, umpired by a computer, compete to 
uncover an interlocking matrix of hidden words. Requiring 
skill, intellectual ability, and luck, Cross Clues claims fifty dif- 
ferent puzzles (of which Softalk's review disk contained three) 
and three time allowance alternatives, so youngsters and par- 
ents can play together. In the fast mode, thinking and acting 
pay off. A fun twist: if the game thinks you're too good, it cuts 
your time allowance in half! For teens and adults. Applesoft. 
$29.95. 

Alien Lander. By Alick Dziabczenko. The object of this simu- 
lation is to bring your ship to a soft landing from twenty thou- 
sand meters, with enough fuel remaining to get off the ground 
and back up to that altitude. The trick isn't to steer away from 
mountain peaks, as on some other landing simulations, but to 
control thrust correctly, given a limited amount of fuel. You 
can vary the problem with three parameters: gravity, thrust, 
and atmosphere. A gravity setting of one with zero atmo- 
sphere would simulate a lunar landing; six and six would 
represent terrestrial conditions. If you choose to have an at- 
mosphere, you have to make sure you don't penetrate it too 
quickly, or your ship will overheat and explode. The higher you 
set the thrust the more control you have ; at any setting your 
engines can fire for a maximum of ninety seconds. You con- 
trol the engines with either the paddles or the number keys. 

The program offers a rather unimpressive hi-res display of 
stars as you begin your descent; a three-dimensional, moun- 
tainous landscape rises to meet you as you approach the 
planet. Beneath this window you see a digital readout of your 
altitude, speed, elapsed flight time, and fuel supply. At any 
time, you can toggle from starscape or landscape to a printout 
from the onboard computer, which offers status information 
and advice. 

To achieve a fully successful landing, you have to get your 
speed down to under thirty kilometers per hour on touchdown. 
To accomplish that efficiently, without wasting fuel that you 
will need for the return flight, requires split-second accuracy 
with the paddle or keyboard. $24.95. Hi 



SEND YOUR 

APPLE ON 
A CRUISE 

And maybe it'll let you come along. 



On June 5, 1982, a luxurious cruise ship will depart from Vancouver, Canada, with several Apples on board. For sev- 
en days, these privileged Apples will be learning such arcane arts as assembly language from Roger Wagner and 
graphics from Ken Williams, as well as compiling Applesoft programs into assembly code with Dennis Goodrow. 

Besides coming back more intelligent, the Apples will be treated to the usual shipboard conveniences by a pro- 
fessional staff dedicated to providing everything a microprocessor might desire. The Apples will enjoy some of the 
most dramatic scenery north of Silicon Gulch, stopping in Ketchikan, Juneau, and Skagway, some of the last fron- 
tier communities. They'll cruise past Glacier Bay— giving the Apples a look at a true hi-res graphic. 

Amazingly, in keeping with Softalk's policies, the Apples will be taking the tour free. Apples craving the com- 
panionship of their owners may inquire about the cost of human participation by writing to: 

Softalk Cruise 
Attention: Donna Siebert 
11021 Magnolia Boulevard 
North Hollywood, CA 91601 

This tour is exclusively arranged for Softalk readers by Valencia Plaza Travel Agency of Newhall, California. 
Roger Wagner, Ken Williams, and Dennis Goodrow are committed to giving seminars on this cruise unless extraor- 
dinary business contingencies arise. 



OCTOBER 1981 



89 




Unless otherwise noted, all products can be assumed to run on 
the Apple II, Apple II Plus, and Apple III in the emulator 
mode and to require U8K and one disk drive. The requirement 
for ROM Applesoft can be met by RAM Applesoft in a lan- 
guage card. 

□ According to recent neurolinguistic research, kids learn to 
spell and do arithmetic by visualizing the letter or number 
combinations involved. Such findings, which can help us im- 
prove learning processes, have been applied in two forthcom- 
ing programs from Behavioral Engineering (Scotts Valley, 
CA) called Spelling Strategy and Math Strategy. Both teach 
the use of visualization to improve verbal and mathematical 
skills. Color TV or color monitor highly recommended. Each 
under $50 and available soon through Apple Computer's Spe- 
cial Delivery Software. 

□ Broderbund Software (San Rafael, CA) calls its new game 
Genetic Drift a combination of scathing social commentary 
and nerve-racking drama, with finger-mutilating action. Also 
new from Broderbund is Space Quarks, with dancing mon- 
sters in an animated arcade research expedition. $29.95 each. 

□ If you're a self-employed professional or run a small busi- 
ness at home, Easy Ledger by Highlands Computer Service 
(Renton, WA) offers the simplest form of accounting— single 
entry bookkeeping under either expense or income. Easy 
Ledger keeps track of expense items under any one of ninety- 
nine user selected headings and keeps a year-to-date, month- 
ly, and type running total. Supports 80-column or 132-column 
printouts and one or two disk drives ; entirely menu driven. $55. 
Highlands also has a new advanced adventure called Goblins, 
in which you venture into Goblin country to secure treasures 
without being killed by said goblins— not to mention ogres, 
elves, or ghosts. You'll navigate submarines, climb moun- 
tains, explore swamps, and duck flying boomerangs. Re- 
quires quick mind, bold heart. $27.50. 

□ People with diabetes and others who require similar diets 
may now find help in following the food exchange diets of the 
American Diabetes Association with Diet Manager, a pro- 
gram for planning all meals and snacks to fit user's diet needs. 
32K. $24.95; by mail, $25.95 from: Daniel Tobias, 7 Broadview 
Road, Poughkeepsie, NY 12603. 

□ Copts and Robbers, another fast-action game from Sirius 
Software, entombs you in an Egyptian pyramid. The only way 
out is to find four jewels and a statue and take them to the vault 
room. Beginners' maze and two advanced ones contain trea- 
sure-guarding mummies and a ghost who likes to take things 
and hide them. $34.95. 

□ CONST from Computing Interface (Redondo Beach, CA) is 
a program for those involved in construction estimating. It 
asks you questions concerning sizes and materials ; makes al- 
lowances for door and window openings ; and calculates quan- 
tities needed and exact sizes of structural members. These fig- 
ures can then be used with the latest material prices to give 
exact construction costs. Program can also help make design 
changes or material substitutions once the original program 
output has been studied. Author: David Love joy. $75. 

□ Rosen Grandon Associates (Tampa, FL) has released an 
enhanced statistical system for the Apple II: A-STAT 79.6. In 
addition to mainframe-type data processing techniques and 
multiple file handling, A-STAT 79. 6 interfaces to the Apple Plot 
hi-res graphics program as well as the File Cabinet data base 
program and can read VisiCalc files. Other features include: 
simplified command language, compatibility with older ver- 
sions, added capabilities in the bivariate tables program, add- 



ed residual analysis, file sorting, and statistical report writ- 
ing. New version, $145; upgrade of older model, $25. 

□ An expansion module is now available for your Temple of 
Apshai game from Automated Simulations (Mountain View, 
CA) ; it's called Upper Reaches of Apshai. Hellfire Warrior has 
a module, too, called The Keys of Acheron. Add new adven- 
tures, monsters, and treasures; generate a new character or 
take along a veteran from previous adventures. Modules are 
not stand-alone games. $19.95. 

□ It's you against the medfly in Sterl from Creative Comput- 
ing (Morris Plains, NJ), a simulation game in which two pest 
control methods— pesticide and release of sterile male flies — 
are used to attempt total eradication. Sterl is one of four games 
in the Ecology Simulations I package. $24.95 for all four. 

□ Architect's Business Manager from Concept Group (El 
Paso, TX) is a comprehensive systems package that provides 
management information for architectural firms with up to 250 
employees and as many as 134 active clients. Subsystems in- 
clude job cost, payroll, general ledger, and accounts payable. 
$2,000. Also useful for architects or engineers is Concept 
Group's Word Star, a document-oriented professional word 
processor that allows you to make your own glossary of archi- 
tectural terms and check your spelling automatically. Both re- 
quire eighty-column board and SoftCard. $495. And, finally 
Concept Group helps architects stay abreast of technology 
with the Masterspec 2 Basic and SLV disk library. To become 



Your Key to 
Program Editing 
on the Apple' II 

$49.95 

Compare the Features of . . . 

MACRO SCED v.s. p.L.E. 





Computer Station 

1 1610 Page Service Dr. St. Louis. MO. 63141 
(314)432-7019 

il Apfil. •-..(! ,W tin- r.'.l'isMvi.l li.nl, 'in. nk-.. I Appl,., ( '', .mpnl.'i In, 



Deprogram store s&ra^s 



POOL 1.5 



9 



For Apple 1 1 
S Apple II Plus 
Applesoft, 48K Disk 
unless otherwise noted 



I 



By Hoffman, St Germain 6 Morock from IDS 
The pressure is on: if you can just get 
enou gh english on the ball to bank it into the 
corner pocket ... In POOL 1.5, you can! A 
remarkable action-simulation of the real thing, 
this program allows full control of your 
"cue-stick" for aim (265 directions) and con- 
trol (all types of english). Play four different 
types of pool at your choice of table speed, 
and even get an "instant replay" of any shot, 
in slow motion! Hi-Res color graphics are 
used throughout this real-time game. 

48K Disk.. .$34.95 




HI-MI 

SOCCER 



DEATH 
MAZE 

5000 




By Jay Sullivan from On-Line 
Here's a game that let's you really get your 
kicks! A real-time Soccer game that offers 
the excitement and challenge of the real 
thing. You manipulate your eight fully- 
-animated characters against a friend or the 
computer. Move the ball down field to scoring 
position, but don't get tackled or your oppon- 
ent may score against you . 
Hi-Res graphics give the kicking, throwing, 
and corner kicks an absorbing realism, aided 
by the game clock, scoreboard, and sound 
effects. Three skill levels allow challenge for 
beginner through expert. 

48K Disk. ..$29. 95 



From Med Systems 

A new breed of adventuring! Venture 
through a graphically represented 3-D maze, 
with halls that could dead end — or recede to 
infinity. Step through the doors or drop into 
the pits. Will you encounter monsters and 
mayhem, or will you be treated to useful ob- 
jects and information? Will you ever get out 
alive? 

You may never find your way out of Death- 
maze 5000, but you'll keep trying! 



32K APPLE II. 16K TRS-80...$12 



f5l 




By Lord British from Top of the Orchard 
An "adventure" that defies description. Un- 
like the text-type adventures, ULTIMA 
allows you to wander through towns, coun- 
tries and continents using Hi-Res graphics 
and set-commands. And unlike the usual 
adventures, your journey spans not only 
space but time, as well. In ULTIMA, you start 
in the dungeons-and-dragons era but may 
progress through the space age and beyond! 
Whether you are "into" adventures, fantasy 
role-playing, or arcade games, you won't want 
to miss playing ULTIMA! 

Supplied on two disks, one protected (only 
one disk drive required) . 48K...$39.95 



THREE 
MILE 
ISLAND 

(SPECIAL EDITION) 
By Richard Orban from Muse 
New machine language version lets you decide 
whether or not nuclear technology is too com- 
plex to handle. The comprehensive docu- 
mentation describes in detail the operation of 
the pressurized reactor illustrated in Hi-Res 
graphics. You must supply electricity -- pro- 
fitably — or lose your license to operate. Blit 
sloppy operation or pushing too hard may 
cause a radiation leak ... or worse! 
48K Disk. . .$39.95 

SABOTAGE 

From On-Line Systems 

As commander of an anti-aircraft base, your 
mission is to clear the skies of enemy planes 
and helicopters. The opposing forces have 
other plans. While keeping you busy with a 
firestorm of bombs, they are dropping para- 
troopers to sabotage your base! 

Quick, machine language animation in Hi-Res 
color graphics. You can fire conventional or 
controlled weapons one shot at a time or in 
rapid sequence. And with auto skill-level es- 
calation, the better you get, the tougher 
"they" get! 
48K Disk. ..$24. 95 



THE PROGRAM STORE 
Franchises Available 




From Muse Software 

The thinking person's fast action game. A 
contradiction? No, RobotWar combines your 
forethought, programming, and logic to create 
and condition a robot that will take part in a 
fast, futuristic gladiator battle! 
RobotWar will provide fun and challenge while 
honing your programming skills. Program 
your robot in special "Battle Language," de- 
bug it on the cybernetic "test bench," and 
finally watch as your efforts win or lose 
against up to four competitors on the battle 
field. 

48K Disk. . .$39.95 

ORBITRON 

By Eric Knopp from Sirius 

Your space station is in a stable orbit, high- 
-energy force fields functioning normally. 
But what's this? One-by-one, killer satellites 
begin orbiting your station, preparing to take 
out your rotating force field — and you! 
Fight them off with your weaponry, but don't 
lose track of the fast-moving meteors. They 
may be on a collision course. 

Sound and fast graphics make ORBITRON a 
treat; the seven levels of difficulty and bonus 
point scoring add to the challenge. 

48K Disk... $29. 95 



TRflnrJUlLlTY 



By Bill Budge from Stoneware 
Hi-Res, arcade-type lunar lander offering 
great fun and a real challenge. As you bring 
your LEM down, you control it through 360 
degrees of rotation. Move horizontally and the 
moonscape "scrolls" aside beneath you. You 
pick your site carefully with the aid of the 
closeup view and try to set your craft down 
gently, because if you come in too "hot" 
you're in for a spectacular crash! 
48K Disk. ..$24. 95 

SANTA PARAVIA 

From Instant Software 

A classic simulation of government, based in 
the year 1400 AD. You can play by yourself 
or compete with up to 6 players as you assume 
the role of rulers of neighboring Italian city- 
states. Most of the factors that go into gov- 
ernment — economics, politics, social issues, 
etc. — are simulated in this program. 

48K disk. . .$19.95 



Visit Our Baltimore, MD Store: W. Bell Plaza - 6600 Security Blvd 



m TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE 800 424-2738 



For information 
Call (202) 363-9797 



MAI L ORDERS: Send check or M.O. for total purchase THE PROGRAM STORE 

price, plus $1 .00 postage & handling D.C residents add 420Q Wiscon$in Avenue NW Dept . O A10 Box 9609 

6% tax. Charge card customers: include all embossed 1 
information on card. PncesSubiea to Change Washington, D.C. 20016 



OCTOBER 1981 



S O E T A L M 



91 



a subscriber and receive each quarterly update, you must be 
licensed by the American Institute of Architects. Fee for first 
year is $550; renewal each year is $175. Fifty disks included. 
For more details, contact George Staten, AIA president at Con- 
cept Group. 

□ WIDL Video (Chicago, IL), publisher of Apple directories, 
has just released its second edition of the Apple II Resource Di- 
rectory, a where-to-find-it book of hardware, boards, periph- 
erals, and accessories. Product information, photos, prices, 
and descriptions are included, as well as lists of Apple refer- 
ence manuals, publications, user groups, and a special section 
of computer bulletin boards across the United States 
accessible from your Apple. $5.95. 

□ Electrical interference can damage your Apple or disrupt 
program operation. The Model ISO-3 Super Isolator from ESP 
(Electronic Specialists, Natick, MA) is built to control inter- 
ference caused by nearby power lines, lightning, heavy ma- 
chinery — even your own disk or printer. Designed for a 1,875- 
watt load. Each socket can handle a 1,000-watt load. $94.95. 

□ American Avicultural Art and Science (St. Louis, MO) has a 
set of two programs for detail engineers, physics students, and 
scientific field engineers: Moment of Inertia, with fifty-six 
formulas for twenty- two bodies of mass, as well as ability to 
calculate dimension, choice of mass, or inertia on selected 
axes ; and Element of Triangle , which contains three major tri- 
angles and twenty-three formulas. Also calculates sides, 
angles, altitude, area, and radius of inscribed circle simul- 
taneously to find force and directions. Both programs on sin- 
gle disks, using touch-key selection input system. Instruction 
includes more than one hundred commonly used industrial 
materials. 36K with DOS 3.3 or 3.2. Two-program set, $40. 

□ Russ Walter's "Computer Blitz Weekends" will be offered 
this month, October 24 through 25, and again November 14 
through 15 at Creative Computing in Morris Plains, New 
Jersey. For anyone interested in learning about computers, 
the workshops go from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m. Saturday and Sunday 
and cover these topics: beginning, intermediate, and ad- 
vanced programming; equipment; computer industry over- 
view; microcomputer applications; purchasing; computer 
languages ; and careers in programming. Tape recorders wel- 
come, as well as follow-up phone calls after the seminar. In 
preparation for the blitz, participants can purchase Walter's 
four-volume Secret Guide to Computers ($14.80), available 
from the Computer Education Center in Morris Plains. Take 
your lunch and learn through the lunch hour. Course fee $68, or 
$36 for either day. For more details, write to Barbara Garris at 
the Computer Education Center, or phone (201) 540-0445. 

□ Lesson-Tutorgraphs are classroom oriented software pack- 
ages that present programmed lessons with full-color hi-res il- 
lustrations and animation. They allow students to review any 
text page independently, test themselves, and review missed 
test questions. First in the series of packages, now available 
from Teach Yourself by Computer (TYC) Software (Geneseo, 
NY) , are Weather Fronts and Shore Features for high school 
or college students. Weather Fronts provides an introduction 
to weather front characteristics, while Shore Features 
acquaints students of geography, geology, or oceanography 
with seashore formations. Each lesson comes with teach- 
er/student user manual. Both $24.95. 

□ Andent (Waukegan, IL), researchers in anthromedical 
technology, robotics, and applied cybernetics, offers Prescrip- 
tion Form Writer for busy doctors. Program prepares multi- 
ple preprinted prescription blanks, enters any drug, dosage, 
quantity, and instruction. Print out any number of forms. $20. 
Also Dental Insurance Form Writer prepares Universal ADA 
Insurance Claim Forms. Allows rapid billing and claim sub- 
mittal. Master form can be created for each patient/family 
and saved for later use. Enter treatments, add dates, print in- 
surance billing. Print as many copies as needed; each diskette 
will accommodate more than one hundred families. User de- 
finable; up to ten practitioners. DOS 3.2 or 3.3, eighty-column 
printer. $100. 



Dithertimi 




...the eye oF 
your apple: 

Though it is very simple to use, the Dithertizer II represents 
the ultimate in video digitizing using the Apple II 
computer. The Dithertizer is an interface card which 
converts video input into digitized images. Because the 
Dithertizer II is a frame grabber, DMA type digitizer, it 
offers extreme high speed in the conversion process (it 
grabs an entire frame in 1/60th of a second). The camera 
supplied with the package is the Sanyo model VC1610X. 
Cabling is supplied for this camera so as to have the 
Dithertizer II system up and running in minutes. The video 
camera used for input must have external sync to allow 
for the frame grabber technology employed for digitizing. 
If a camera other than the model recommended is used, 
wiring adaptations by the user may be required. Software 
is supplied with the board to allow you to display up to 64 
pseudo grey levels on your Apple's screen. The number 
of grey levels may be changed with one keystroke. The 
intensity and contrast of the image are controllable via 
game paddles. Also supplied is software for image 
contouring for those interested in movement detection 
or graphic design applications. 



The Dithertizer II package Is available ready 
to run with camera, Interface card and 
the software described above for only: 

Dithertizer II Interface card 
and software (without camera): 



$650.°° 
$300.°° 



Computer Station 

1 1610 Page Service Dr. 
St. Louis, MO 63141 
(314)432-7019 

Apple II is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 
Ditherthizer II is a trademark of Computer Station, Inc. 



92 jjj lSQETALK OCTOBER 1981 



□ A new report for owners of retail computer stores from Irv 
Brechner Enterprises (Livingston, NJ). Computer Store Ad- 
vertising: A Complete Guidebook offers advice on every as- 
pect of advertising. Written in easy-to-understand language, it 
covers a variety of topics. $25. 

□ McGraw-Hill (New York, NY) will hold two different elec- 
tronic communication workshops this November. A two-week 
course titled "Basic Data Communications" will be held at 
the Los Angeles Marriott Hotel, Los Angeles, November 9 
through 20, 1981. Course will provide engineers, technicians, 
operations staff and marketing/administrative personnel 
with a background in data processing with a detailed under- 
standing of all aspects of basic data communications. 

□ Another learning opportunity sponsored by DataCommuni- 
cations magazine will be a two-day seminar titled, "The 
X.25 Packet Network Protocol." Topics will include concepts 
and terminology; physical level; link level; packet assem- 
bly/disassembly for nonpacket mode terminals; and upper 
layer protocols. Seminar will be held November 16 and 17, 1981, 
at the Adam's Mark Hotel in Houston, Texas. 

□ Soft CTRL Systems (West Milford, NJ) introduces Utility 
ROM. Program has five different functions including catalog 
directory sort, data disk create, program recovery, automatic 
line numbering, and list control. $39.95. 

□ Small computer systems won't be so vulnerable with The 
Voltage Surge and Transient Suppressor from Cuesta Sys- 
tems (San Luis Obispo, CA). Electronically removes or 
greatly reduces sudden voltage changes that could affect the 
performance, or produce catastrophic failure of, sensitive 
electronic equipment. Plugs into an AC line power receptacle 
on the same fifteen-amp breaker circuit as the electronic 
equipment being protected. Solid-state semiconductors clip all 
overvoltage surges beyond 132 VAC, and a passive filter net- 
work snubs high frequency transients that might occur any- 
where over the full input voltage waveform. A two-amp inter- 
nal fuse provides safety overload protection. $29.95. 



□ Accounting Plus II from Systems Plus (Palo Alto, CA) is a 
general accounting package that offers general ledger, ac- 
counts receivable, accounts payable, and inventory with pur- 
chasing. Totally integrated and menu driven with user 
prompting for easy use. Supports two or three floppy drives 
or hard disk; reset protected to prevent loss of data, main- 
tains up to 300 customers, 300 vendors, and 500 charts of ac- 
counts, on-line updating of data files. Inventory-purchasing 
module supports 1,000 items per volume, multiple volume by 
multiple disk, four different costing methods, maintains 
master parts list, prints purchase orders, and maintains on 
order quantities. Requires two or three disk drives, or Corvus. 
Integrated package of four available for $1,395. Choice of any 
three modules including general ledger, $995. Single modules, 
$425. 

□ Brain Box (New York, NY) announces the release of two 
hundred educational programs on thirty titles. The Brain Box 
Courseware Kit accompanies each title, permanently houses 
the disk or cassettes, and contains a glossary of commonly 
used computer terms, an overview of microcomputer hard- 
ware and functions, a primer for Brain Box programs, and a 
pronunciation guide to the Brain Box adaptation of the 
phonetic alphabet. Each lesson combines text with animated 
graphics plus sound effects. Available on disk and cassette, 
each lesson is 16K. Discount prices for multiple copies. Dem- 
onstration disk with a variety of lessons available for $30, 
which will be credited against the purchase price of any two or 
more titles. 

□ SMART (the Securities Market Analysis, Reporting, and 
Transaction system) from Software Resources (Cambridge, 
MA) is an integrated system designed for institutional money 
managers and investors. Provides capabilities for retrieving, 
storing, graphing, and analyzing securities and economic data. 
Portfolio module provides capabilities for maintaining and re- 
porting data and transactions for securities portfolios. Users 
can automatically access data from one or more remote data 




There's no 
Dr.Jekyll 
in Apple W 
programming. 




'Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 



Programming 6502 Assembly Language is no 
longer frightening or a monster problem. Because 
Randy Hyde has written the book that's easy to 
understand, easy to follow. It turns assembly 
language into the 'friendly language'. For anyone. 
For the average Apple H owner and the newest 
beginner. 

Let Mr. Hyde get you started immediately, with 
string and math operations. See how to convert 
BASIC programs so they run up to 100 times 
faster! Discover Sweet-16, the 'hidden' 16-bit 
pseudo computer inside your Apple. Enjoy using 
your Apple to the maximum by following the step- 
by-step, practical examples. . .which turn you into 
a programmer in the blink of a chapter. 

thanks to Mr. Hyde 

$19.95 per easy-reading copy at computer 
stores everywhere, or from: 

DATAMOST 

19273 Kenya St. 
Northridge, CA 91326 
(213) 366-7160 



VISA/MASTERCH ARGE accepted. 
$1.00 shipping/handling charge. 
(California residents add 6% tax) 



Here's the KEY 
to your Apple®! 




Computer 

Station's 
Programmers 

Handbook 

for the 

Apple® 



Retail Price 
29.95 



Indexed Looseleaf notebook (7V2" x 9") 
containing all the reference material found in our 
popular Programmers Guide to the Apple II® 



Plus . . . 

• Applesoft" & Integer 

• CP/M Digital 
Research, Inc. 

• Basic-80 Microsoft 

• Pascal 



• 6502 Assembly Language 

• DOS 3.3 

• DOS Tool Kit 

• Monitor 



Including Command References for 



Applewriter " 
Visicalc" Personal Software 



• Macro-Seed 



Hardware Configurations & 
Software Commands for 



Spinwriter 
PaperTiger 



• Silentype 

• Special ROMs 



Two diskette pockets in front & back. Notebook 
format allows user to add personal comments. A 
must for every Apple^ owner. Available from your 
local Apple' 51 Dealer or from : 

Computer Station 

11610 Page Service Dr. 
St. Louis, MO. 63141 
(314) 432-7019 

Direct order will incur a $2.00 shipping/handling 
charge plus sales tax where applicable 



Apple. Apple II and Applesoft are the registered trademarks of 
Apple Computer. Inc. 



OCTOBER 1981 SON 

bases and prepare graphic displays in a variety of formats. 
Graphing options include open-high-low-close charts, volume 
histograms, line charts, and point plots. Two disk drives 
recommended. $2,150. 

□ Software to suit your appetite from SoftTouch (Costa Mesa, 
CA) . Recipe Handler organizes and prints a shopping list of 
your favorite recipes. Recipe expansion of serving size adjusts 
each ingredient for quantity of people to be served. DOS 3.2 or 
3.3. $39.95. Dealer inquiries invited. 

□ World and State Capitals from American Avicultural Art & 
Science (St. Louis, MO) consists of one hundred world nation 
capital test and a fifty U.S. state capital test. Designed to elimi- 
nate teacher supervision and encourage student spelling accu- 
racy as well as knowledge of the United States and the world. 
Score results are retrievable for teacher's use; teacher can 
produce own test. Intended for a wide range of grades with 
four choices of questions, or for family use. $25. 

□ Scholastic Inc. (New York, NY) is offering nearly two hun- 
dred programs for the 1981-1982 school year for all grades and 
most subject areas including computer awareness. Detailed 
descriptions of all programs are included in the new 1981-1982 
Scholastic Microcomputer Software Catalog, which is avail- 
able by writing to company. 

□ Compu-Law, a law office management system for the Apple 
II from Decisionmakers (San Jose, CA) , helps with critical cal- 
endar dates, accounts information, billing, and case load 
scheduling. Use with any eighty-column word processor. 
$2 500. 

□ Creative Software Development (West Valley City, UT) an- 
nounces the Time Machine II, a real-time clock peripheral. 
You can select combinations of six date and seven time for- 
mats using software commands. Routines are interrupt driven 
and do not affect other Apple II functions. Basic system, with 
applications disk software, $135; applications disks #2 and #3, 
each $15. 

□ C & H Video (Hummelstown, PA) , offers the Menu, a home 
menu planner/recipe retrieval system. Stores up to 399 reci- 
pes, changeable any time ; up to 42 meals planned and writ- 
ten; shopping list printouts with ingredient quantities based on 
number of persons fed. Printer required. $29.95. 

□ "Speech Coding," a seminar on various synthesized voice 
techniques, will be presented by DataCommunications maga- 
zine in San Francisco on December 2-4, 1981, at the Jack Tar 
Hotel. Course will focus on basic elements of digital speech 
processing. Other topics include analog speech signals and 
their processing; analog/digital and digital/analog conver- 
sion of speech signals ; special forms of Founder Transform ; 
and future voice applications. Registration fee is $650. 

O The Multiple Choice from CompuServe (Columbus, OH) of- 
fers multiple choice educational tests, including an analogy 
quiz like those taken by graduate school applicants, a trivia 
test, and a personality profile test. Service provided at $5 per 
hour weekday evenings, weekends, and holidays. Weekday 
daytime access, too. Requires a modem and membership in 
CompuServe. 

□ Through the CompuServe Information Service, Archer Com- 
modities (Chicago, IL) provides Apple II owners with current 
market reports, commentary, and futures trading informa- 
tion, as well as charts, newsletters, and quotation equipment. 
Fee of $5 per hour weekday evenings, weekends, and holidays. 
Weekday daytime access also available. 

□ Home data retrieval from your office computer twenty-four 
hours a day is possible with the Auto-Cat from Novation, Inc. 
(Tarzana, CA). It's an automatic answer direct-connect 
modem designed to communicate at 300 baud over dial-up tele- 
phone lines using a standard modular jack. Has three data 
modes— automatic answer, manual answer, and manual 
originate. $249. 

□ Apple II owners can eliminate the need for expensive print- 
ed stationery, business cards, invoices, mailing labels, etc., 
with the Business Papers Kit from Solutions Softworks (Ro- 
selle, IL) , which allows them to print their own individualized 
stationery and business forms. $39.95. 31 




OPTIONS : 



Change 

Draft 

Ma in Menu 

Pr i n-t 

Rename 

Save 

Uideopri n"t 



M 




AWord Processor 
for the real world 



When you buy a personal computer for your of- 
fice, you don't want to take a college degree to use it. 
Computer Solutions has Word Processing software 
so good that it will make you want to buy 
an Apple II. 

We call it ZARDAX — a wonderful 
writing tool for business use. Powerful 
and versatile, yet easy to use and 
natural. 

You enter your text in free-form, insert- 
ing carriage returns only when you 
want definite paragraph breaks. 
Then watch while ZARDAX prints 
up your copy, breaking it into lines 
where appropriate. Change margin, 
pagewidth and pagelength with 
simple commands and print up a 
new copy in a different format. 

With ZARDAX, printing 100 
copies is easy. Inserting different 
specific information into each copy is easy. You can 
be in control of the format of your words and 
sentences. 

Fast recording of your documents on inexpensive 
magnetic diskettes. Retrieve your documents from 

ZARDAX is a trademark of Computer Solutions 




requires a 48K, 1 
Apple 



diskette so easily, make some changes, and record 
the altered version. Then ZARDAX will print your 
new improved version. Never again will you retype a 
whole document just because you wanted a 
few changes. 

Standard paragraphs recorded on 
diskette can be combined in different ways 
to make new documents. There are all 
kinds of possibilities. ZARDAX supports a 
wide variety of printers. From the best (and 
most expensive) letter-quality 
printers to the cheapest dot-matrix 
printers. ZARDAX's best feature is 
its price — only $295 at your Apple 
dealer. 

If your dealer doesn't carry 
ZARDAX, have him mail us on The 
Source CL1791. Or have him call 
one of our distributors. In the USA, 
Action-Research Northwest, 11442 
Marine View Drive SW, Seattle, WA 98146. In the 
UK, Rocon Ltd, Radley Road Industrial Estate, 
Abingdon Oxon. Or dealers may write us 
at Computer Solutions, P.O. Box 397, 
Mount Gravatt. 4122. Australia. 

APPLE is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 



6-sector disk-based 
II Plus 



estate, 




BY THEOI FULLER 



Apple users are blessed with a vast selection of utility soft- 
ware. But the boon becomes a curse when you're ready to buy 
one and have to choose among them. This article describes 
some utilities that do their jobs well in a friendly way, whether 
you're a novice Apple user or a veteran programmer. 

To be good, a utility program must meet certain criteria: 

1. It must save you time and effort. The utility should help 
you use the Apple to do things the Apple does better than you 
and leave you free to do those things you do better than the Ap- 
ple. 

2. The functions of the utility must be easy to understand 
and easy to operate. You shouldn't have to be a computer ex- 
pert to use a utility. 

3. It must be a good buy. That is, the purchase price should 
be reasonable considering the value of the functions the pro- 
gram provides. 

Here are some utilities that meet these criteria: 
DOS Toolkit, Apple Computer Inc. A remarkable utility 
package, DOS Toolkit consists of two smaller toolkits: the Ap- 
ple II Assembler/Editor System and the Applesoft Toolkit. 

The Apple II Assembler/Editor System is a powerful 6502 
relocating assembler with which you can edit and assemble 
very large machine language programs. Even if you're not an 
assembly language jockey, you can use the editor to write 
Basic programs in an easy-to-read structured format or to edit 
Basic programs with convenient text-manipulation features. 

The Applesoft Toolkit is a programmer's delight. It con- 
tains the Applesoft Programmer's Assistant, the High-Resolu- 
tion Character Generator, Animatrix — a character-set edi- 
tor — and a Relocating Loader for machine language pro- 
grams. 

The Applesoft Programmer's Assistant helps you write and 
change Applesoft programs. It numbers lines automatically as 
you enter programs. It allows you to renumber and merge pro- 
grams easily. It tells you the length of the program in mem- 
ory, and it compresses a program in final form by deleting re- 
marks. It also displays any control characters in a file, allows 
you to type special characters from the keyboard, and cross- 
references the variables in a program by line number. What's 



really nice is that all these features are available with just a 
couple of keystrokes. 

Animatrix and the High-Resolution Character Generator 
simplify graphics; the former lets the user define graphic 
character sets, and the latter makes it easy to display them on 
the hi-res screen. The features of these utility programs make 
it easy to enhance graphic displays by adding text to them, and 
to add interest to screen printouts by using different character 
sets. These subroutines also can be used to develop animated 
graphics. The High-Resolution Character Generator can pro- 
duce the same character set as the hardware character gen- 
erator in your Apple — and many others besides: foreign al- 
phabets and decorative alphabets, both with upper and lower 
case, and graphics alphabets for animation. Apple furnishes 
fifteen different character sets on the DOS Toolkit disk, and 
you can use the Animatrix program to generate a character 
set of your own design. 

The Relocating Loader lets the user write machine lan- 
guage programs that can run on Apples with various amounts 
of memory by making machine-language subroutines relocat- 
able. 

The Applesoft Toolkit documentation includes three pro- 
grams on the disk, Skylab, Maxwell, and Ribbit, that dem- 
onstrate the use of the High Resolution Character Generator 
and the Relocating Loader. In addition to providing a good ex- 
ample of how to use the High-Resolution Character Generator 
for animation, Ribbit is fun to play. 

The DOS Toolkit is an excellent utility package that de- 
serves a place in every serious programmer's library. 
Super Disk Copy II and Multi-Disk Catalog III, Sensible 
Software. As your software library gets larger, so does the task 
of organizing and keeping track of all the files you are accumu- 
lating. Then there's the problem of converting files from the 
DOS 3.2 thirteen-sector format to the DOS 3.3 sixteen-sector 
format. A person with a single drive must have the skill of a one- 
armed paperhanger to use Apple's Muffin program to trans- 
fer all his/her files from DOS 3.2 disks to DOS 3.3 disks, since 
Muffin will transfer only one file at a time. Super Disk Copy III 
and Multi-Disk Catalog II greatly reduce the drudgery asso- 
ciated with organizing and maintaining your disk library. 

Super Disk Copy III lives up to its name. It is an easy-to- 
use, menu driven program that allows transfer of all types of 
files under DOS 3.3, 3.2, and even 3.1, if your library goes back 
that far. You can copy individual files (Applesoft, Integer, 
binary, and text) , copy an entire disk, or copy DOS. The pro- 
gram can easily be configured for any combination of DOS 3.2 



96 



WHTAI If 



OCTOBER 1981 



and 3.3 source and target disks, and can be used with either one 
disk drive or two. 

Super Disk Copy has a wealth of useful features. You can 
init copy disks, delete files, undelete files (a lifesaver), and 
lock or unlock files. You can replace control characters in file 
names, fix file sizes, alphabetize disk directories, and rear- 
range file sectors for improved access times. The program will 
display a map of sectors in use and tell you the number of free 
sectors on a disk. You can use Super Disk Copy to free up DOS 
and unused directory sectors for up to 13K of additional disk 
storage. 

Multi-Disk Catalog III is a very fast machine language data 
base program for keeping track of the contents of your disk li- 
brary. It very quickly reads and stores the file names, types 
and sizes, number of free sectors remaining, and actual vol- 
ume number from each of your disks. It permits the identifi- 
cation of each disk with both a name and a disk identification 
number. Both sides of a disk can be given the same identifica- 
tion number for easy reference. Multi-Disk Catalog permits 
you to group together games, utilities, and other types of re- 
lated files through the use of two-character field. A flip DOS 
feature allows the program to read information from DOS 3.3 
and 3.2 disks, which greatly simplifies the task of cataloguing 
your disks. Fast, powerful sort and search features allow you 
to query the data base for specific information about your 
library. 

Super Disk Copy III and Multi-Disk Catalog III take most of 
the pain out of organizing and maintaining the files in your disk 
library. With these utilities, library maintenance is a task in- 
stead of a chore. 

Double DOS by Leighton Paul and DOS Plus by Sensible Soft- 
ware. Double DOS and DOS Plus provide the software solution 
to the schizophrenic problem of having to live with both DOS 



3.3 and 3.2 disks. Each of these utilities installs machine lan- 
guage code above Himem, allowing you to switch easily be- 
tween DOS 3,3 and DOS 3.2. Double DOS and DOS Plus remain 
ready for action after most Basic commands, including FP, 
INT, RUN, LOAD, NEW, CLEAR, and after a reset. The pro- 
cess of switching from one DOS to another does not affect a 
program in memory and can even be done under program con- 
trol if desired. This feature provides a lot of flexibility for such 
things as transferring individual programs between thirteen- 
sector disks and sixteen-sector disks. In certain circum- 
stances, programs on copy-protected thirteen-sector disks can 
write text files to sixteen-sector disks. 

Double DOS and DOS Plus make it possible for the Apple 
user to stay unhassled in spite of the two DOSs. They save the 
user a lot of rebooting — and a lot of swearing. 
DOS Boss by the Beagle Bros. Beagle Bros, software has a 
certain flair and a lot of style. (One Beagle Bros, menu grumps 
at you to "hurry up" if you don't make a choice.) DOS Boss 
allows you to impart some of this flair and style to your own 
disks. This utility lets you tailor the DOS on your disks to suit 
your own tastes. You can shorten DOS commands such as 
catalog, load, and save to "C/," "L/," and "S/. M DOS Boss 
allows you to change DOS error messages from "disk full" to 
"burp!" or "syntax error" to "I don't understand." You can 
customize your catalogs by changing the dull "disk volume" 
header to "sexy software" or "Frank's disk," or whatever else 
suits your fancy. Sector numbers and file codes can be altered 
or eliminated. One neat routine allows you to organize listings 
by file types. 

All this foolishness — and practicality — is made easy by the 
DOS documentation. They also throw in their Apple Com- 
mand Chart and the Apple II Tip Book for good measure. 

Who says utilities have to be serious to be usable? 




PRICE BREAKTHROUGH 

I6K RAM BOARDS FOR 
APPLE JUST $129.95 



HAVE VOU BEEN WAITING FOR THE COST 
OF EXPANSION BOARDS TO COME DOWN? 
VOUR WAIT IS OVER. UP UNTIL NOW RAM 
EXPANSION HAS COST AS MUCH AS 
$195.00. NOW OMEGA MICROWARE IS 
PROUD TO ANNOUNCE THE ARRIVAL OF A 
TRULV AFFORDABLE EXPANSION CARD. 

NOW VOU CAN RUN PASCAL, FORTRAN, 
56K CPM WITH A Z80 SOFTCARD, 
INTEGER BASIC, APPLESOFT AND OTHER 
LANGUAGES ON VOUR APPLE. NOW VOU 
CAN INCREASE USUABLE MEMORV FOR 
VISICALC. NOW VOU DON'T HAVE TO PAV A 
FORTUNE TO HAVE ALL THIS. 

AT $129.95, OMEGAS RAMEX 16 IS THE 

LOWEST PRICED CARD AVAILABLE 
TODAV. 

WHAT DO VOU GIVE UP WHEN VOU 
PURCHASE THIS FIRST REALLV 
AFFORDABLE RAM EXPANSION CARD? 
WELL, VOU GIVE UP HAVING TO REMOVE 
ONE RAM CHIP FROM THE MOTHER BOARD 
OF VOUR APPLE. VOU -GIVE UP HAVING TO 
STRAP A CABLE FROM THE CARD TO VOUR 
MOTHER BOARD. THAT'S IT. WHAT VOU 
GET IS A SIMPLE, RELIABLE, BOARD 
THAT JUST PLUGS IN. MEMORV REFRESH 
IS ACCOMPLISHED ON THE BOARD 
ITSELF. 



THE RAMEX 16 IS GUARANTEED NOT JUST 
FOR 90 DAVS. NOT EVEN 6 MONTHS. OUR 
WARRANTV IS FOR ONE FULL VEAR FROM 
DATE OF PURCHASE. WE WILL REPAIR OR 
REPLACE ANV BOARD THAT IS DEFECTIVE 
THROUGH MANUFACTURE FOR A PERIOD 
OF ONE VEAR AFTER PURCHASE PROVIDED 
THIS DAMAGE IS NOT USER INFLICTED. 

ORDER VOUR RAMEX 16 NOW BV CALLING 

TOLL FREE I-800-835-2246. KANSAS 

RESIDENTS CALL I - 800- 362 - 24 2/ . 

MASTERCARD OR VISA ACCEPTED OR 

SEND $129.95. ILLINOIS RESIDENTS ADD 

$7.80 SALES TAX. 

ANOTHER QUALITV PRODUCT FROM 

OMEGA MICROWARE, INC. 

F0RMERLV OMEGA SOFTWARE 

PRODUCTS, INC. 

222 SO. RIVERSIDE PLAZA 

CHICAGO, IL 60606 

PHONE 312-648-1944 

©OMEGA MICROWARE, INC. 

APPLE AND APPLESOFT ACE REGISTERED 
TRADEMARKS OF APPLE COMPUTES, INC. PASCAL IS A 
REGISTERED TRADEMARK OF THE REGENTS OF THE 
UNIV. OF CA. SAN DIEGO. VISICALC IS A REGISTERED 
TRADEMARK OF PERSONAL SOFTWARE. CPM IS A 
REGISTERED TRADEMARK OF DIGITAL RESEARCH INC. 
Z80 IS A REGISTERED TRADMARK OF ZIL0G, INC. 
SOFTCARD IS A REGISTERED TRADMARK OF 
MICROSOFT. 




(E-sX^A' SI 



BY 

DON FUDGE 

IF YOU CAN T jUPGEJT,_FUPGi 




The Sbla 



Designing Solar Homes with the Computer 

BY (KAK STIMSOM 



This house is an example of passive solar architecture, 
which means that it provides a substantial part of its occu- 
pants' heating needs by the nonmechanical collection and dis- 
tribution of radiant energy from the sun. Home of Dr. Patrick 
Moore and Patricia Moore in Snowmass Village, Colorado, 
the house was designed by the firm of David Finholm & As- 
sociates. Assisting in the design were an Apple computer and a 
set of programs by Solarsoft, Inc. 

A passive solar house differs from an active solar house in 
that it relies as much as possible on so-called natural means of 
heat distribution — radiation, conductance, and convection — 
while avoiding such power-consumptive devices as pumps 
and fans. Buildings that are primarily passive in design but 
make moderate use of mechanical devices for heat distribu- 
tion are sometimes called hybrid solar buildings. 

Like acoustics, solar architecture is an inexact science, 
mostly because there are so many variables that affect the 
way a building performs. Quite apart from climate, the archi- 
tect must also consider other factors such as the amount of 
solar radiation that will be absorbed directly through glazing 
and indirectly via ground reflectance, the thermal con- 
ductance and capacitance of building materials and insula- 
tion, the amount of heat that will be generated within the build- 
ing by its occupants and their activities — to mention only a 
few. 

Nothing New Under the Sun. Fulfilling the thermal re- 
quirements of a building through passive solar means is not a 
new goal ; passive solar concepts have been incorporated into 
building design in many places by many peoples, particularly 
in areas like the southwestern United States, where there's 



abundant clear sunshine. 

But a passive solar technology — a coherent, quantified set 
of principles to guide architects — is a comparatively new de- 
velopment. Much of the impetus for this technology has arisen 
over the past half decade or so from research done at Los 
Alamos Scientific Laboratories in New Mexico. The results of 
the work at Los Alamos have been published in the two- volume 
Passive Solar Design Handbook (available from the National 
Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA, as DOE/CS- 
0127/1 and DOE/CS/0127/2) . The first volume is primarily de- 
scriptive and introductory, the second quantitative. 

The methodology established by the researchers at Los 
Alamos and the data base published in volume two of the hand- 
book have been incorporated into three programs for the Ap- 
ple, written by Matt Crosby and William Ashton and pub- 
lished by Solarsoft. The programs, named Sunpas, Sunop, and 
T-Swing, make up the computerized equivalent of a solar 
consulting service for architects, providing them with the best 
intelligence currently available on the subject of passive solar 
design. Solarsoft promises to update the programs from time 
to time, keeping them cognizant of ongoing research. 

The three programs perform the following functions : Sun- 
pas calculates the fraction of a building's heating require- 
ments that can be expected to accrue from a given solar de- 
sign in a given climate and the amount of auxiliary (nonsolar) 
heat expected to be required. Sunop takes data from Sunpas or 
from user input and performs calculations for economic opti- 
mization. T-Swing is a simulation program that calculates 
diurnal temperature fluctuations in specified thermal sys- 
tems. T-Swing also contains a module called Solgain that 



calculates such things as the angles of incident solar radiation 
at specified latitudes upon windows of specified orientations 
with overhangs of various dimensions, and so on. Solgain also 
calculates the amount of heat (in British Thermal Units) that 
can be expected to fall upon such specified windows on a clear 
day around the twenty-first of each month of the year. 

All the Solarsoft programs provide a wealth of detailed in- 
formation about how a given solar design can be expected to 
function, based upon correlations developed at Los Alamos. 
Sunop, T-Swing, and Solgain generate, in addition to nu- 
merical reports, a variety of graphic displays (see figures 1-5) . 

It Don't Mean a Thing If It's Got Too Much Swing. One of the 
important things about these programs is that they work to- 
gether as an integrated unit. A good solar design is a sort of 
complex juggling act. The object is by no means simply to cap- 
ture as much sunlight in a house as possible. In most climates 
a building that could supply sufficient solar energy to meet all 
its heating needs would be both economically unsound and 
problematical from the standpoint of heat distribution. 

One of the major economic considerations is the phenome- 
non of diminishing returns. Additional solar glazing collects 
additional heat at an ever-decreasing rate, so that at some 
point the incremental cost of a solar BTU exceeds that of a 
BTU provided by nonsolar methods. The distribution problem 
arises from the fact that solar heat, once captured, needs to be 
stored and transported in some way to be useful. Adding solar 
glazing without a compensatory increase in storage mass 
would probably lead to unmanageable overheating in south 
rooms without necessarily providing enough heat to the north 
side of the house. 



The designer, therefore, has a lot of tradeoffs to measure. 
Each of the Solarsoft programs considers a different aspect of 
the problem. Because of this, and because the programs can 
pass data back and forth among themselves, allowing the de- 
signer to perform sensitivity studies on individual variables, 
the Solarsoft programs can do much to facilitate the balancing 
process. 

In the case of the Moore house, the Solarsoft programs 
were used for final design consulting. The firm of David Fin- 
holm & Associates had been working in the field of passive 
solar design for several years, so the residence was already 
well thought out from a solar point of view. The Solarsoft pro- 
grams were used for three purposes: to confirm that the 
amount of thermal storage mass was appropriate for the build- 
ing's 340 square feet of solar glazing; to determine whether 
any fans would be needed to prevent excessive temperature 
swings in the south side of the house and move heat into the 
lower north rooms ; and to study the economic feasibility of a 
system of movable insulation. 

The exploded drawing of the Moore house (page 101) shows 
the location of iits principal solar design features. The west- 
ern, southern, southeastern, and eastern walls provide a total 
of 340 square feet of double-paned solar glazing. The greatest 
solar energy gains will occur through the south walls of the two 
western bedrooms and the library. 

Where Sunlight Runs into a Wall. Directly behind the glaz- 
ing of those two bedrooms is 290 square feet of Trombe wall. A 
Trombe wall is a wall of heavy masonry material that lies di- 
rectly in the path of sunlight entering the building. The wall 
heats up during the day and gradually radiates its warmth to 



100 



OCTOBER 1981 



contemplating 
a byte 




For one full year, many of you have been wondering how long we would con- 
tinue sending you Softalk free without trying to put the touch on you for some- 
thing, whether a subscription, software, peripherals, kidney beans, defective 
grommets, or spare Edsel parts. Now comes the magic moment. 

Softalk commissioned graphics artist Robert Zraick to do August's cover 
with a poster in mind. The robot contemplating a bite is evocative both of Ro- 
din's The Thinker and the Genesis passage on the Garden of Eden ... not to 
mention the possible significance to our favorite technological fruit. 

The artist and Softalk are sharing in the profits from the poster. Softalk will 
distribute its proceeds to individuals developing Apple tools to help the handi- 
capped. Softalk guarantees 100 percent distribution of its monies. 

In addition to the posters, which are being sold at $6.00, (plus $1.50 to cover 
shipping and handling), two hundred artist's proofs, signed by Robert Zraick, 
are available at $75 each. 

The size of the poster is 24 inches by 34 inches. The artist's proof will be hand- 
numbered and hand-signed and be accompanied by a certificate giving its num- 
ber and guaranteeing that only 200 are being distributed. 

Robert Zraick's art will grace any computer room, and your purchase will 
help others become more self-sufficient. 
Orders may be sent to: 

SOFTALK 

Softalk Poster 
11021 Magnolia Boulevard 
North Hollywood, California 91601 

Dealer inquiries invited. 



the rest of the room. Vents are provided at the top and bottom 
of the wall to create a convection loop, drawing cool air in from 
the room through the lower vent and returning warm air 
through the top. The vents can be closed at night to prevent the 
reversal of this circulation. 

The southern face of the library is lined with 79 square feet 
of water column walls. These function in much the same way 
as the Trombe walls, except that the heat storage medium is 
water encased in metal. Water has certain advantages over 
masonry as a storage medium; it has a higher specific heat, 
which means it will hold more heat longer than masonry, and 
because of its fluid nature it will distribute its heat evenly with- 
in itself. 

On the roof of the building are 68 square feet of clerestory 
solar windows and a solar water heater. 

Figure 1 shows a portion of the analysis performed by Sun- 
pas. The table headed Climate Responsive Takeoffs includes 



CLIMATE RESPONSIVE TAKEOFFS 





SURFACE 


TYPE 


W 


H 


AREA 


U 


UtA 


AZ TI AB RMI 


01 02 


1 


E WALL 1 


NS 


22 


7.7 


132 


.038 


5 














2 


WINDOWS 


D6 


10.6 


3.5 


37 


.56 


20 


98 


90 


1 


9 


0 


0 


3 


N WALL 1 


NS 


23.3 


7.7 


159 


.03B 


6 














4 


WINDOWS 


NS 


6.6 


3 


20 


.56 


1 1 














5 


E WALL 


NS 


5. 4 


21 


113 


.038 


4 














6 


N WALL 


NS 


21.5 


21 


452 


.038 


17 














7 


E WALL 


NS 


6. 4 


20.5 


122 


.038 


4 














8 


WIND0W2 


DG 


2.5 


3.6 


9 


.56 


5 


98 


90 


1 


9 


0 


0 


9 


N WALL 


NS 


15 


20.5 


290 


.038 


11 














10 


WINDOW1 


NS 


5 


3.6 


18 


.56 


10 














1 1 


NW WALL 


NS 


20 


20.5 


357 


.038 


13 














12 


WINDOW1 


NS 


8.8 


1.5 


13 


.56 


7 














13 


WIND0W2 


NS 


12 


3.3 


40 


.56 


22 














14 


W WALL 


NS 


28 


20.5 


446 


.038 


16 














15 


DOOR1 


NS 


3 


6.7 


20 


. 15 


3 














16 


WINDOW1 


DG 


10 


2.8 


28 


.56 


15 


82 


90 


1 


9 


0 


0 


17 


DOOR2 


NS 


3 


6.7 


20 


. 15 


3 














18 


WINDOW2 


DG 


17. 1 


3.5 


60 


.56 


33 


0 


90 


1 


9 


72 


24 


19 


S WALL 


NS 


16.5 


3.9 


64 


.03B 


2 














20 


S WALL 


NS 


16.5 


2.2 


36 


.038 


1 














21 


TROMBE 


TWI 


16.5 


14.3 


185 


.226 


41 


8 


90 


.9 


9 


14 


0 


22 


WINDOW1 


DGI 


4.5 


3.5 


16 


.39 


6 


8 


90 


1 


9 


0 


o 


23 


WIND0W2 


DGI 


16 


2.2 


35 


. 39 


13 


8 


90 


1 


9 


14 


0 


24 


SE WALL 


NS 


10 


6.5 


38 


.081 
















25 


WINDOW1 


DG 


7.2 


3.7 


27 


.56 


14 


43 


90 


1 


9 


0 


0 


26 


SE WALL 


NS 


10 


2.2 


22 


.038 


0 














27 


TROMBE 


TWI 


lO 


10.5 


105 


. 226 


23 


43 


90 


.9 


9 


14 


0 


28 


S WALL 


NS 


16 


16 


117 


.038 


4 














29 


WATER 


WW I 


7 


11.3 


79 


.56 


44 


8 


90 


.9 


9 


14 


0 


30 


WINDOW 


DGI 


5.3 


11.3 


60 


.56 


33 


8 


90 


1 


9 


0 


0 


31 


S WALL1 


NS 


11.5 


9.5 


109 


.038 


4 














32 


BUFFER WL 


NS 


28 


8 


224 


.026 


5 














33 


ROOF 


NS 


36 


45.5 


1638 


.024 


39 














34 


SKYWALLS 


NS 


54 


5 


202 


.038 


7 














35 


GLASS 


DGI 


18.9 


3.6 


68 


.56 


38 


8 


90 


1 


9 


12 


0 



TOTAL CLIMATE RESPONSIVE HEAT LOSS = 496 BTU/HR— DEGREE 



INFILTRATION AND PERIMETER LOSSES 



INFILTRATION: VOLUME 35000 

AIR CHANGES .5 
PERIMETER EXPOSED FEET 222 

F— VALUE . 17 

INFILTRATIVE LOSS 235 BTU/HR— DEGREE 
PERIMETER LOSS 38 BTU / HR— DEGREE 

FIGURE 1. 

data input by the architect as well as some calculated by the 
program. In the column marked Type, the abbreviations are 
as follows: NS stands for a nonsolar surface — one that will not 
acquire solar energy; DG stands for direct gain and includes 
all windows except those facing north; TW and WW stand for 
Trombe wall and water wall, respectively; and the addition of 
the letter I to an abbreviation indicates the presence of mov- 
able insulation. 

The U-value in the sixth and seventh columns of the table is a 
measure of thermal conductance of a surface, expressed in 
BTUs per hour per square foot per degree Fahrenheit of 
temperature difference between the inside and outside of the 
building. The rightmost six columns apply to the solar sur- 
faces only and measure the azimuth (the compass orientation 
of a surface, with south as zero), the tilt of the surface in de- 
grees above the horizontal, the absorptivity of a surface, the R- 



OCTOBER 1981 



101 



value of movable insulation, and the dimensions and position of 
overhangs above windows. 

The table in figure 2 is a sort of bottom line of the Sunpas 
analysis. The figures under SLR are the calculated monthly 
solar-load ratios — the ratios of solar energy gained to heat lost. 
SSF stands for solar savings fraction and represents the por- 




CALCULATED AUXILIARY HEATING REQUIREMENT 



MONTH 


SLR 


SSF 


AUX 


JAN 


1. 1 


.38 


9.6 


FEB 


1.6 


. 55 


5.5 


MAR 


2 


.67 


3. 6 


APR 


2.2 


.71 


2 


MAY 


3.6 


.88 


.5 


J UN 


10.4 


.98 


0 


JUL 


62.6 


. 98 


0 


AUG 


30.4 


.98 


0 


SEP 


7.6 


.98 


. i 


OCT 


3 


CD 


i 


NOV 


1.4 


. 5 


5. 3 


DEC 


1.2 


.4 


8.9 



YEARLY AUXILIARY 
YEARLY SSF: 



36.5 MILLION BTU 
577. 



MOORE RESIDENCE 

FIGURE 2. 

tion of the house's heating requirements that can be expected 
to accrue from the solar design features. The last column 
shows the amount of auxiliary heat that will have to be sup- 
plied to maintain the specified temperature range — in this case 
65 to 75 degrees — within the house. 

Two Sunpas analyses were run on the Moore house, one 
with the presumption of movable insulation, the other without. 
The program calculated solar savings fractions of 57 percent in 
the model with movable insulation and 33 percent in the model 
without. 




1 Vi i 1 1 ■ • 1 li 



IN THIS EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC DRAWING OF THE MOORE RESIDENCE, 
YOU ARE LOOKING DOWN FROM THE SOUTHWEST, APPROXIMATELY FROM THE 
ANCLE OF THE MIDAFTERNOON SUN. THE NUMBERS IN THE CIRCLES REFER TO 
THE BUILDING'S SOLAR SURFACES, AS LISTED IN FIGURE 1. THE LETTERS 
BELOW THE NUMBERS DENOTE THE TYPES OF SOLAR SURFACES. 
DG = DIRECT GAIN; DGI = DIRECT GAIN WITH MOVABLE INSULATION: TWI> TROMBE 
WALL WITH MOVABLE INSULATION; WWI= WATER WALL WITH MOVABLE 
INSULATION. 




IF YOUR PRINTER HAS GRAPHICS CAPABILITY.. . 
WHEN YOU NEED GRAPHICS USABILITY 



GRAPHTRIX 



PRINTS ALL YOUR APPLE II HI-RES GRAPHICS 



AND MUCH MORE. . . 



* The first Multi-Printer graphics screen dump for the Apple II that can be 
called from YOUR Applesoft program. Specify Magnification, Normal/Inverse, 
Centering, Hi-Res Page, Hi and Lo Crop Marks, and Title in one simple pro- 
gram line. 

* The first text formatting and printing program for the Apple II to include a 
graphic call command or automatic footnote formatting. Formats and Chap- 
ters text files generated by the Apple Writer. 

* The only software package that lets your Apple !l output graphics to ALL 
the following printers: ANADEX 9000/9001/9500/9501, EPSON MX-70/MX-80/ 
MX-100, IDS 440G/445G/460G/560G, CENTRONICS 739, MPI 88G, SILEN- 
TYPE. 



FROM DATA TRANSFORMS INC. THE GRAPHIC LEADER , 

GRAPHTRIX is a trademark of Data Transforms Inc.. a division of Solarstatics Inc. 
Apple II and Apple Writer are Trademarks of Apple Computer Inc. 

® Copyright 1981 Data Transforms Inc. 906 E: Fifth Ave. Denver, Co. 80218 (303) -722-8774 



102 



ECONOMIC VARIABLES 



mum 



OCTOBER 1981 



PROJECT : MOORE 
LOCATION: ASPEN 



PERIOD OF ANALYSIS (PT> 

DOWN PAYMENT FRACTION (DPR) 

HQRT6AGE TERM ( T > 

ANNUAL INTEREST RATE <I> 

ANNUAL DISCOUNT RATE (R) 

ANNUAL INFLATION RATE (O) 

FED, STATE, LOCAL TAX RATE (FS> . . . 

TAX CREDIT RATE <CT) 

MAXIMUM TAX CREDIT (MA) 

PROPERTY TAX RATE X OF TC (TX>... 
ANN. I NFL AT. PROPERTY VALUE (01)... 
PASS. SYSTEM YR.EXP.7. OF TC (OMI). 
ANN. INFLATION OPERATING EXP. (02) . 
COST OF BACKUP FUEL ADJ . COP (PO) . 

FUEL ESCALATION RATE (E) 

ASSESSMENT VALUATION FACTOR (V) . . 
BACKUP SYSTEM CAPITAL COST (BSC). 
BACKUP SYSTEM YEARLY COST (OB) . . . 

FIXED COST (FC) 

SOLAR COLLECTOR AREA (A) 

VARIABLE COST (VC) 

CONSERVATION COST (CO 

BUILDING LOSS COEFFICIENT (L).... 

SOLAR SAVINGS FRACTION (SSF) 

ANNUAL HEATING DEGREE DAYS (DD).. 
AUX. FUEL PRICE (FP) 



8 

.2 
30 
. 16 
. 13 
. 1 
.3 
. 3 

3000 
1E-03 
. 15 
5E-03 
. 1 

6.41 
.2 

.6 

200G 

1E-03 

O 

O 

15 

3500 
1 1603 
0 

8426 
6.41 



FIGURE 3. 



Total Costs 




SOLAR SAVINGS FRACTION 

FIGURE V. 



These results were then fed to Sunop to determine, among 
other things, whether the movable insulation's costs could be 
justified by the savings in auxiliary energy it would provide. 
Figure 3 lists underlying economic assumptions that were 
made for the Sunop run. Figure 4 shows part of the results of 
that run. 

The ascending and descending curves in figure 4 represent 
the solar and auxiliary costs, respectively, as functions of the 
solar savings fraction. The third curve represents total costs. 
Because the slope of the solar cost line increases with increas- 
ing SSF, while the auxiliary costs decrease at a steady rate, 
the total cost line reaches a minimum at an SSF of just over 50 
percent. Had this graph been extended to the right, the total 
cost line would show a marked increase at SSF values above 60 
percent. 

Wide Variety of Light Shed by Sunop. Sunop generates a 
great deal of other information as well, including a table of life- 
cycle costs, an annual cash flow analysis that takes into con- 
sideration local tax credits for solar designs, and a chart of net 
present value versus solar savings fraction. 

Finally, the Moore house was analyzed by T-Swing to see 
what kinds of temperature fluctuations could be expected, 
given the architect's provisional design, and to determine 
whether a fan would be needed to move the heat from the south 
side to the lower north rooms. For comparison the building 
was simulated using anticipated temperature conditions in 
March and January, and with three different models. The first 
model included neither a fan nor the water wall columns lo- 
cated in the library. The second model included the water wall 
but no fan. The third included both water wall and a variable- 
speed, thermostatically controlled fan. 

Figure 5 is a graphic overlap of the first and third models. 
The lines marked 1A and IB represent the twenty-four-hour 
temperature curves for a typical March day for the southern 
rooms, with and without water wall and fan, respectively. The 
14A and 14B lines provide the same information for the lower 
north rooms. 



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84 




82 


T 


80 


E 




M 


78 


P 




E 


76 


R 
A 


74 


T 




U 


72 


R 




E 


70 




68 




66 




64 



Type B : No Fan 
No Water Wall 

Type A : Fan 
Water Wall 




I I } l l l l l l l l l l l l 



12 



18 



24 



TIME OF DA V <HOUR> 



FIGURES. 



The graph shows clearly that the presence of the fan and 
water wall moderates the temperature variations between one 
end of the house and the other and helps to avoid overheating in 
the southern rooms. The lines marked 1 and 14, incidentally, 
represent the extreme ends of a complex fourteen-node ther- 
mal system that takes into account all the important com- 
ponents of the house's thermal storage system. 

The Solarsoft analyses on the Moore house resulted in 
recommendations for the installation of a temperature-acti- 
vated system of movable insulation along the thermal walls of 
the house and the inclusion of a variable speed fan to carry 
warm air into the lower north side. HI 



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• Works with documents larger than the amount of 
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• Automatically generates up to 4 separate indices 
for your document! 

• Save typing time through a unique ability to 
designate specified keys as commonly used 
words, phrases or even commands! ' 

• Globally search for or replace character strings. 

• Superscribe II has a built-in instruction capa- 
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command and the manual is not close by - you 
may simply ask Superscribe ][. 



• Supports multiple disk drives! 

• Will support alternate character sets. 

• Supports the shift key modification if made to 
your Apple. 

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104 



§k S O E T A I IT 



OCTOBER 1981 



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THE BASIC 



olution 





ByWm.Y R.Smith 



The response to the subroutine for turning DOS on and off has been strong. Sever- 
al readers' letters explained how the routines had solved problems they had been 
working with. Such letters are very helpful in channeling the direction of future Basic 
Solutions. If you have found a programming problem, please send it to Softalk. Not all 
your questions can be answered, but those that might be of interest to other readers 
will be explored. 

This month's Basic Solution routine searches through a string variable S$ for the 
occurrence of another string held in the array SS$(). SS$() may have as many strings 
as you wish to search for. The total number of strings to search by is held in the 
variable SN. A sample program is provided to demonstrate how to set up the re- 
quired variables. 

The subroutine returns to the calling program with the variable FL set to the loca- 
tion in SS$( ) that was found. FL will return as 0 if no occurrence was found. 

This routine is quite useful to search through a mailing list for certain zip codes, 
last names, cities, and so on. 

Your ideas and subroutines are always welcome. If your solution is printed, you'll 
receive a ten-dollar credit toward any purchase at your local computer store. Mail 
your input to Softalk Basic Solution, 11021 Magnolia Boulevard, North Hollywood, CA 
91601. 



1000 
1001 
1002 
1003 
1004 
1005 
1006 
1007 
1008 
1009 
1010 
1020 
1030 
1040 
1050 
1060 
1070 
1080 
1090 

10 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
30 
31 
35 
40 
45 
50 
55 
60 
65 
70 
80 
90 
99 



SEARCH STRING 
VAR SS FOR 
SSS(l-SN) 
FL>0 - FOUND 
FL = 0 NOT FOUND 

WM V R SMITH 



REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 

REM **»»»***»*********** 

L = LEN (SS) 

FOR X = 1 TO L 

FOR Y = 1 TO SN 

SL = LEN (SSS(Y)) 

AS = MIDS (SS,X,SL) 

IF A$ = SS$(Y) THEN FL = Y:Y 

NEXT Y 

NEXT X 

FL = 0: RETURN 



SN + 100: NEXT Y:X = L + 100: NEXT X: RETURN 



PRINT 
SS$(1 



PRINT 



PRINT 



APPLE" 
SS$(2) = "COMPUTER" 
SS$(3) = "MONITOR" 
SS$(4) = "DISK" 
SS$(5) = "PRINTER" 
SN = 5 

PRINT "ENTER A PHRASE WITH ONE OF THESE WORDS" 
PRINT 

FOR X = 1 TO SN- 
PRINT X ; " - ";SS$(X) 
NEXT X 

PRINT : INPUT "THANK YOU ";S$ 

GOSUB 1000 

IF FL = 0 THEN 80 

PRINT : PRINT "YOU ENTERED WORD # ";FL 
GOTO 10 

PRINT : PRINT "YOU DID NOT ENTER A PROPER WORD" 

GOTO 10 

END 



□I 



N-LINE svs,ems 



HI-RES ADVENTURE 




MISSION: ASTEROID 
HI-RES ADVENTURE # 0 

MISSION: ASTEROID is an introduction to the HI-RES ADVENTURE 
family of games. This adventure is slightly easier and a little shorter 
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designed to acquaint beginning Adventure players to the wonderful 
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In this adventure you. find that an Asteroid is about to hit the Earth 
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OVER A HUNDRED HI-RES PICTURES. (Looks great on b/w and color 
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MYSTERY HOUSE 
HI-RES ADVENTURE # 1 

Through the use of over a hundred Hi-Res pictures you play and see your ad- 
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over 300 words.) All rooms of this spooky old house appear in full Hi-Res 
Graphics complete with objects you can .get, carry, throw, drop or ? 
In this particular HI-RES ADVENTURE game, you are transported to the front 
yard of a large, old Victorian house. When you enter the house, you are pulled 
into the mystery, murder and intrigue and can not leave until you solve the 
puzzles. Your friends are being murdered one by one. You must find out why, and 
who the killer is. Be careful, because the killer may find you! As you explore 
the house there are puzzles to be solved and hazards to overcome. The secret 
passage way may lead you to the answer. 

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THE WIZARD AND THE PRINCESS 
HI-RES ADVENTURE # 2 

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find the wizard and his castle you must first cross deserts, oceans, 
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You will be forced to learn magic, navigate at sea and dig for 
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HUNDREDS OF HI-RES PICTURES. (Looks great on b/w and color 
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FULL 21-COLOR!! HI-RES GRAPHICS. (Each room a work of art). 
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BY FAR THE MOST AMBITIOUS GRAPHIC GAME EVER WRITTEN FOR 
THE APPLE! ! 



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All of these Hi-Res Adventures are available now at your local computer store. They will run on any 48K Apple II or II Plus with a disk drive. To order 
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DB MASTER 
WOULD LIKE TO 
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Impressed? 

Thanks to customers like these, DB MASTER is 
the second fastest selling business software package 
for the Apple II. 

Even more impressive are the comments from 
some of our customers. As Mr. M. Robert McElwain, 
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It's a real treat to acquire those which are truly out- 
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Software Inc Apple II is a registered trademark of Apple Computer. 
©1981 Stoneware Microcomputer Products 



Equally impressive is the range of features built 
into DB MASTER. As Mr. McElwain continues, "I 
could comment on the screen formatting, short forms, 
security, auto date . . . but where do I stop? With over 
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when we use it." 

Our special thanks to Mr. McElwain. And to all our 
equally impressed customers. 

As they all know, in today's highly competitive 
marketplace, a good name is hard to come by. 




OCTOBER 1981 



S C) E T A L I 



107 



Mind Your 




BY PETER OLIVIERI 




For several issues, we've been focusing on data base man- 
agement systems. With this column we'll conclude, tempor- 
arily, our examination of these packages by discussing DB 
Master and the PFS series. Altogether, we've evaluated five 
packages: Data Factory, CCA Data Management System, 
Datadex, DB Master, and PFS. Next time we concentrate on 
this type of utility, we'll cover Super Kram, Request, Thinker, 
and the Data Reporter, among others. 

Remember that opinions in any review reflect the biases 
and preferences of the reviewer. For example, certain fea- 
tures of a package may be more important to you than to me ; 
thus, you should weight them more heavily than the review 
does in reaching your purchasing decision. Evaluations are in- 
tended only as a guide. 

The PFS Series. The PFS software series is designed to be a 
personal information management system. The system was 
developed by the Software Publishing Corporation (Palo Alto, 
CA). 

The first package, PFS, requires a 48K, sixteen-sector, 
disk-based Apple II system. With this program, you are able 
to create files, enter data in those files, copy files, search 
through files, print files, and remove records from files. 

The most striking feature about PFS is how easy it is to use. 
The manual is extremely well done, helpfully illustrated, and 
completely understandable. Even if the program itself weren't 
so friendly, documentation like this would go a long way 
toward making it so; since it is, the guide is gravy. 

The PFS system is operated on the principle that informa- 
tion is kept in forms in files. With PFS, you are the one who de- 
signs and manages these forms. Each form may have up to 
thirty-two pages, each page containing about twenty lines of 
data. You can fit about one thousand pages on one data disk. 
While you can use as many disks as you wish for a file, search- 
ing through multiple disks for information can become quite 
cumbersome. 

The PFS menu offers you options to create a file, add a 
form (enter data), copy a file, search through a file, print a 
file, and remove a record. 

To create a file, you must give it a name and then design the 
form that will be used to enter your data into that file. A file 
name may have only eight characters in it, which you may find 
a bit short. 

Designing a form is remarkably easy. You first move a cur- 
sor to wherever on the screen you would like to place your 
field. Then you simply type the field name followed by a colon 
and move on to the next place you want to put a field. The 
length of each field is determined by the distance to the next 
field heading. There is virtually no limit. 

When you're ready to enter data, and select that option, a 
blank form of your design appears. Right arrow moves the 
cursor among field positions; you merely type the data. When 
you press control-C, all the data currently on your form is 
saved on your disk and another blank form appears. 

You can, if you wish, add attachments to any record at a 
later time. However, these attachments apply only to the indi- 
vidual record, not one in the file. You cannot define fields on an 
attachment; they are really for additional comments. You can 
search on these comments when you're looking for a particu- 
lar record. 

Copying a file using PFS requires that you have a system 
with two disk drives. While this is an obvious restriction, you 
could copy a disk using the Apple Pascal copy features. 

Searching through the file for certain records is quite eas- 



ily accomplished. When this option is selected, a blank form is 
displayed on the screen. You then enter a variety of search cri- 
teria in any or all of the fields of your form. Records that 
match all the criteria you've specified will then be displayed. 
You can search using a full-item match, a partial-item match, 
or relational operators with numeric data (<> = ). 

One important feature, surprisingly glossed over in the 
manual, is the ability to update a record. The oversight may 
have occurred because the process is so simple. When you 
have retrieved a particular record through searching, you can 
retype a field value or even enter it for the first time. After 
making updates this way, pressing control-C saves the up- 
dated record on disk. 

The print options with PFS are limited. A companion prod- 
uct, PFS: Report, is a more powerful report generator de- 
signed to be used with PFS; the cost of both PFS packages 
combined is consistent with the cost of other DBMS packages. 

Within PFS alone, the print option allows you to select 
which records to be printed just as if you were defining search 
criteria. Then you may choose to have field names printed or 
not, and you may specify number of lines per record. You're 
then asked to identify which fields of the record you wish to 
have printed. However, you may not change the order of the 
fields, and your only formal choices are to print a field on the 
same line as a previous field or on a new line. You may also 
print individual records from the search mode, but here the en- 
tire record is printed without options. 

Some of the more obvious applications for PFS include 
phone messages, recipes, patient records, customer lists, coin 
collections, and so on. 

The PFS: Report. It's best to have two disk drives to take 
full advantage of the features of this software. PFS Report is a 
table consisting of up to nine vertical columns. Each row of the 
report contains information from one record. The rows can be 
sorted numerically or alphabetically, and the program can 
perform calculations on numeric information. PFS can total, 
average, or count the number of items in a column. Subtotals 
are also possible. You may include up to three derived columns 
in your report — derived from data currently in the file. How- 
ever, if you have only one disk drive, you cannot sort; you may 
only have seven columns in your report ; and you cannot pro- 
duce subtotals. 

The PFS: Report menu allows you to print a report, prede- 
fine a report, or set new headings on a report. The records to be 
selected for printing are chosen by using the same techniques 
as in a PFS search. You can then number each field and 
specify the order of the columns in the final report. In addi- 
tion, you can indicate which columns are to be totaled, aver- 
aged, or counted. 

PFS: Report allows three of your final report columns to be 
derived from other data in your file. Columns can be added to- 
gether, multiplied by a constant and so on. When using de- 
rived columns, PFS: Report slows down quite a bit. 

Other features of this package allow you to predefine (and 
save) up to eight report formats and set new report headings if 
you wish. The PFS series is nicely done, easy to use, and a 
valuable addition to one's software library. Further com- 
patible modules are promised. 

DB Master. DB Master is a comprehensive data base man- 
agement system designed to provide the user with a sophisti- 
cated tool for processing data. 

The system requires 48K and DOS version 3.3. Of course, a 
printer significantly increases the usefulness of the system, 



108 



mum 



OCTOBER 1981 








The Data Factory 

Micro Lab 
3218 Sk'jkle Valley 
Road 

Highland Park, IL 
60039 


Provided 
purchase 


APPLE II or, 


Good 
very good 






Excellent 






Good 
to 

very good 


Good 
to 

very good 


(1) You can list the 
files on your disk. (2) 
Amount of disk space 
left Is displayed. 
(3) You can get file 
statistics. (4| Youcan 
select another file 
whenever you wish. 
(5) Transfer option 
allows you to relocate 
records Into a new 
data base (a very nice 
feature). (6) Con- 
struct and Append 
permits the adding of 
more fields at a later 
date. 


Field names are 
limited to five 
characters. 
There can be lots 
of disk swap- 
ping (particu- 
larly with a one- 
disk system). 
The guide could 
be Improved. 


Very good product, 
friendly. In addi- 
tion, Micro Lab has 
other products com- 
patible with it. 


DB Master 

Stoneware 
Microcomputer 
Products 
50 Belvedere Street 
San Rafael CA 94901 


Send for 

free 
backup 


Apple II Plus, 
48K, DOS 3.3 


Fair 

to 
good 


Very good 


Good 


Excellent 


Excellent 


Excellent 


Very good 


Excellent 


( 1 ) Comprehensive- 
ness of the system. 
12) Password protec- 
tion features. (3) The 
Dynamic Prompting. 

(4) Extensive report 

(5) Capability of up to 
one hundred fields. 


The user guide 
could be much 
improved. It 
takes time to 
learn to use the 
features of this 
package. Field 
names reduce 
potential le 


Excellent data base 
management sys- 
tem. It would be 
particularly appro- 
priate for the small 
business owner. 


PFS and 
PFS: Report 

Software Publishing 
Corporation 
P.O. BOX 50575 
Palo Alto, CA 94303 


Send $15 
with 
registration 


APPLE II 

Apple II 

Plus 
48K, DOS 3.3 


Excellent 


Excellent 


Excellent 


Excellent 


Good 
very good 


Good 
to 

very good 


Fair 


Very good 


(1) User's guide is ex- 
ceptionally well done ; 
Includes actual screen 
images. (2) Very 
easy to learn how to 
use. (3) Well thought- 
out series. 


Multiple disk 
files can be cum- 
bersome. Once 
designed, you 
cannot add fields 
to a form. File 

limited to eight 
characters. 


This Is an excellent 
package, particu- 
larly suited for the 
home, though not 
limited to use there. 
It is easy to use and 
clearly designed for 
the new user. It 
may be best suited 
to applications 
with reasonably 
short forms, al- 

include lengthy text 
fields can find no 
comparable sys- 
tem. 


Datadex 

Information 
Unlimited Software 
281 Arlington Avenue 
Berkeley, CA 94707 


Shipped when 

warranty 
card received 


APPLE II 

Plus, 
48K, DOS 3.3 


Very good 
to 

excellent 


Excellent 


Excellent 


Excellent 


Good 
l °ood 


Good 
to 

very good 


Very good 


Very good 
to 

excellent 


(1) Easy to design 
forms — actual screen 
Images are shown in 
the user's guide. 

(2) You can add your 
own programs to the 
package's utility file 
list. (3) Search op- 
browse feature. 
(4) You can create 
subfiles from your 
master file. (5) New 
fields can be Inserted. 


You are limited 
to how many 
fields you can fit 

There are no ad- 
ditional pages or 
form attach- 
ments. 


It Is Impressively 
easy to learn to use 
Datadex. Especi- 
ally likable are 
some of the special 
features (brows- 
ing, guessing, trans- 
lating files, list of 
peripherals) . Best 
suited to files with- 
out a great many 
fields. 


CCA Data 
Management 
System 

Personal Software 
1330 Bordeaux Drive 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 


You can make 
a copy 
yourself 


APPLE n, 
32K or 48K, 
DOS 3.2 or 
3.3 


Very good 
to 

excellent 


Good 


Very good 


Very good 


Good 


Good 


Very good 


Good 


(1) Error messages 
referred to on the 
screen are well docu- 
mented in the manual. 
(2t You can easily 
calculate how much 
free space Is avail- 
able. (3) Interfaces 
with VlsiCalc and con- 
tains instructions on 
how to use the data 
with other programs. 


The screen for- 
mat for creating 
files could be 
better You can 
have only twenty- 
four fields In 
each record, 


This is a good sys- 
tem with good docu- 
mentation. 



LISP 



for the Apple II 



Pegasys Systems' new P-LISP interpreter is a full im- 
plementation of the well-known Artificial Intelli- 
gence language. Written in machine code, this 
powerful interpreter includes the following features: 

• Over 55 functions implemented 

• Extensive 45-page User Manual 

• Full function trace 

• Floating point math and Hires graphics 

• Function editor and pretty-printer 

• Break mode for function debugging 

• PROG construct, EXPRs, and FEXPRs 

• ELIZA and other sample programs included 

P-LISP is supplied on disk with User Manual for 
$99.95. The manual is available separately for 
$10.00. Please specify DOS 3.2 or 3.3. 

PEGASYS SYSTEMS, INC. 

4005 Chestnut Street 
Philadelphia, PA 19104 

Orders only: 800-523-0725 

PA residents and inquiries: (215) 387-1500 

Pennsylvania residents add 6% sales lax 

Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. Bi^B tommd 

Good software is no longer a myth. 




and dual disk drives are a definite advantage. The version be- 
ing reviewed is version 3, the latest DB Master update. 

The user's guide supplied with DB Master is quite compre- 
hensive. The material itself is well- written, but it requires 
careful reading. A manual designed with more illustrations 
and a more pleasing typeface (important to many users) 
might have been preferable, but, given the completeness of the 
material, these shortcomings can be overlooked. 

DB Master is an excellent DBMS despite some of the criti- 
cism you're about to read. 

Files created with DB Master may have up to three levels 
of password protection — a useful feature in many business set- 
tings. When you use this package, a feature called dynamic 
prompting lists (in abbreviated form) at the bottom of the 
screen the information you need to know to proceed. 

DB Master fields can be numeric, alphanumeric (one to 
thirty characters) , or computed. You may have up to ten com- 
puted fields in each record. The report generator allows up to 
twenty-four fields in each report. All fields you design may 
contain a default value that will automatically be entered as 
data if you wish. 

Creating a file is not as simple as it is with some of the other 
DBMSs. A DB Master screen form layout sheet is provided to 
facilitate the creation of your form before you begin using the 
program. You put your field names and lengths on a sheet in 
the exact position that you wish them to appear on the screen. 
When you build your form on the screen, you must respond to 
several questions printed at the bottom of the screen: the 
name of a field; the field type; where on the screen a field 
should be placed (this is a horizontal and vertical location ; you 
use your layout sheets to indicate these grid locations; the 
length of the field ; and whether there is a default value for this 
field. One nice feature here is that you may enter a field edit- 
ing mode that allows you to reenter any of the fields or reposi- 
tion them. (You may not add or delete fields during the editing 
mode, however.) The form that you design may have up to 
nine pages. 



October 1981 S O P T A HTtp 109 



DB Master provides you the opportunity to specify both pri- 
mary and secondary key fields in a record. This can signifi- 
cantly increase the speed with which you can retrieve a rec- 
ord for editing or display. 

As you use DB Master, it becomes necessary to swap disks 
every now and then. There is a master program disk, utility 
disks that store housekeeping information about a file, and 
master disk for the actual data. You may even need to have 
sort disks. This swapping can become cumbersome, particu- 
larly if you don't have two disk drives. 

When you wish to enter data to a file, you select the Open- 
ing Existing File option and insert the appropriate utility disk- 
ette. You enter records into a file by filling in a blank form on 
the screen. Pressing the return key moves you to the next field, 
and escape moves you to the previous one. The data entry pro- 
cedure is quite easy to follow and a pleasure to use. 

DB Master can find and display records quickly if you 
search by the primary key or even by the secondary key. All 
other searches are done sequentially. Searches (for display or 
for printing) may include a search for a range of values in a 




"And please keep an eye on Consolidated 
Investments until we can fix the computer." 



McCrae/The Bulletin /Sydney /reprinted from World Press Review/May 1981 

field, a wild card search (for a beginning series of characters 
or for characters included within a string) , a relational search 
(> < > = <>), and an and/or search. A statistics feature en- 
ables an additional search that displays the count, sum, aver- 
age, and standard deviation for a particular field. 

Pressing control-F finds the selected records and displays 
them. Various other control key options allow you to page 
through a form, continue with the search, specify other search 
criteria, or print the current page of the form that is displayed 
on the screen. 

An editing mode permits changing the contents of any 
field in your file, deleting a record, or using a calculator mode 
to adjust the contents of a particular field. 

The report generator in DB Master includes a description of 
both short forms and long forms. A short form is a form that 
contains only a few of the fields in a file's main form. This can 
be quite helpful when you're entering data to a file or when 
you're updating or editing fields in your file. 

Creating a report format is a rather complicated process, 
but the end result is a report that's truly user customized. The 
DB Master report generator can sort records on as many as 
six fields at a time, date reports, print comments at the top of 
each page, automatically number pages, use up to nine lines 
for column titles, use up to twenty- four computed fields, ac- 
commodate up to 132 columns of information, utilize a variety 
of line spacing options, place footnotes at the bottom of a re- 
port page, total and subtotal columns, and use a wide variety 
of record selection options. This report generator is one of the 
most powerful we've seen to date. 

A file maintenance module contains procedures for re- 
blocking a file (making more efficient use of storage space), 
obtaining file statistics, and changing passwords, among other 
things. 

Finally, convenient appendices in the documentation list 
error messages and some of the more common problems that 
users may encounter, as well as a table that shows how many 
records can be stored of various record lengths and with vari- 
ous numbers of fields. 



Although the user's guide takes a good deal of time to read 
and become familiar with, the programs supporting the sys- 
tem are quite easy to use. The effort expended in becoming fa- 
miliar with this package is well worth it. This is a very com- 
prehensive and complete data base management system. 

Comparing Packages. It is not easy to compare packages in 
a particular area, especially when the packages are quality 
products showing a great deal of professionalism in their de- 
sign but differing in their intents as well. Each has its own 
strengths and weaknesses, and each has a certain application 
area for which it is best suited. Ultimately, you must decide 
what characteristics are most important to you. Is price the 
deciding factor? The number of records that can be stored? 
The ease with which the package can be used? 

The chart summarizes the key characteristics of each of 
the packages we have discussed, listing strengths and weak- 
nesses of each and evaluating some of the more important fea- 
tures. These evaluations reflect my own reactions and should 
be so interpreted. You may wish to cut this out and file it under 
DBMS for reference. We will be adding to it in future issues. 

In Conclusion. All these data base management systems 
were nicely done. You would not regret having bought any one 
of them. However, it's important to get the one that's just right 
for your needs. This requires you to do a little homework on 
what your needs are. 

We recommend that you have two disk drives and a printer 
as components of your system if you expect to do a lot of work 
with a data base. Also, look for packages that allow you to in- 
terface your data with other packages or with programs you 
have written. Your needs will no doubt grow, and you want 
your system to be able to grow along with it. 

Please send your reactions or comments about these or 
other packages you are familiar with. Reactions from users 
can be shared with others to benefit us all. Hi 




QUALITY DISK SOFTWARE 

BACKED BY ON-GOING APPLICATIONS SUPPORT 

APPLE II ® TRS»80 ® 



HOME FINANCE PAK I: Entire Series $49.95 ® © 

CHECK REGISTER AND BUDGET: This comprehensive CHECKING ACCOUNT 
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM not only keeps complete records, it also gives you 
the analysis and control tools you need to actively manage your account. 
The system provides routines for BUDGETING INCOME AND EXPENSE. AUTO- 
MATIC CHECK SEARCH, and BANK STATEMENT RECONCILING. CRT or printer 
reports are produced for ACTUAL EXPENSE vs BUDGET. CHECK SEARCH 
DISPLAY RECONCILIATION REPORT and CHECK REGISTER DISPLAY by month. 
Check entry is prompted by user-defined menus of standard purposes and 
recipient codes, speeding data entry and reducing disk storage and 
retrieval time. Six fields of data are stored for each check: amount, check 
no., date, purpose, recipient and TAX DEDUCTIBLE REMINDER. CHECK SEARCH 
routines allow searching on any of these data fields. Up to 100 checks /mo. 
storage $39.95 

SAVINGS: Account management system for up to 20 separate Savings 
accounts. Organizes, files and displays deposits, withdrawals and interest 
earned for each account S14.95 

CREDIT CARD: Get Control of your credit cards with this program. Organizes, 
stores and displays purchases, payments and service charges for up to 20 
separate cards or bank loans $14.95 

UNIVERSAL COMPUTING MACHINE: $49.95 ® 

A user programmable computing system structured around a 50 row x 50 
column table. User defines row and column names and eguations forming a 
unique computing machine Table elements can be multiplied, divided, 
subtracted or added to any other element. Hundreds of unique computing 
machines can be defined, used, stored, and recalled, for later use. Excellent 
for sales forecasts, budgets, inventory lists, income statements, production 
planning, project cost estimates-in short for any planning, analysis or 
reporting problem that can by solved with a table. 

COLOR CALENDAR: $29.95® 

Got a busy calendar? Organize it with Color Calendar. Whether its 
birthdays, appointments, business meetings or a regular office schedule, 
this program is the perfect way to schedule your activities. 
The calendar display is a beautiful HI-RES color graphics calendar of the 
selected month with each scheduled day highlighted in color. Using the 
daily schedule, you can review any day of the month and schedule an event 
or activity in any one of 20 time slots from 8:00 A.M. to 5:30 P.M. 

BUSINESS SOFTWARE: Entire Series $159.95®® 

MICR0ACC0UNTANT: The ideal accounting system for small businesses. 

Based on classic T-accounts and double-entry booking, this efficient 

program provides a journal for recording posting and reviewing up to 1.000 

transactions per month to any one of 300 accounts. The program produces 

CRT and printer reports covering: 

TRANSACTION JOURNAL BALANCE SHEET 

ACCOUNT LEDGERS INCOME AND EXPENSE STATEMENT 

Includes a short primer on Financial Accounting. (48K) S49.95 

UNIVERSAL BUSINESS MACHINE: This program is designed to SIMPLIFY and 

SAVE TIME for the serious businessman who must periodically Analyze, 
Plan and Estimate. The program was created using our Universal Computing 
Machine and it is programmed to provide the following planning and 
forecasting tools. 

CASH FLOW ANALYSIS SALES FORECASTER 

PR0F0RMA PROFIT & LOSS SOURCE AND USE OF FUNDS 
PR0F0RMA BALANCE SHEET JOB COST ESTIMATOR 
REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT INVENTORY ANALYSIS 

Price, including a copy of the Universal Computing Machine .... $89.95 

BUSINESS CHECK REGISTER AND BUDGET: Our Check Register and Budget 
programs expanded to include up to 50 budgetable items and up to 400 
checks per month. Includes bank statement reconciling and automatic 
check search (48K) $49.95 

ELECTRONICS SERIES VOL I & II: Entire Series $259.95 

LOGIC SIMULATOR: SAVE TIME AND MONEY. Simulate your digital logic 
circuits before you build them. CMOS. TTL. or whatever, if it's digital logic, 
this program can handle it. The program is an interactive, menu driven, 
full-fledged logic simulator capable of simulating the bit-time response of a 
logic network to user-specified input patterns. It will handle up to 1000 
gates, including NAN0S. N0RS. INVERTERS. FLIP-FLOPS. SHIFT REGISTERS. 
COUNTERS and user-defined MACROS, up to 40 user-defined random, or 
binary input patterns. Accepts network descriptions from keyboard or from 
LOGIC DESIGNER for simulation $159 95 ®(f) 



LOGIC DESIGNER: Interactive HI-RES graphics program for designing digital 
logic systems. Draw directly on the screen up to 10 different gate types, 
including NAND. NOR. INVERTER. EX-0R. T-FL0P. JK-FL0P. D FLOP. RS-FL0P. 4 BIT 
COUNTER and N-BIT SHIFT REGISTER. User interconnects gates using line 
graphics commands. Network descriptions for LOGIC SIMULATOR generated 
simultaneously with the CRT diagram being drawn $159.95(J) 

MANUAL AND DEMO DISK: Instruction Manual and demo disk illustrating 
capabilities of both program (s) $29.95 (J)(j) 

ELECTRONIC SERIES VOL III & IV: Entire Series $259.95 

CIRCUIT SIMULATOR: Tired of trial & error circuit design? Simulate & debug 
your designs before you build them' With CIRCUIT SIMULATOR you build a 
model of your circuit using RESISTORS. CAPACITORS. INDUCTORS. TRANSISTORS. 
DIODES. VOLTAGE and CURRENT SOURCES and simulate the waveform response 
to inputs such as PULSES. SINUSOIDS. SAWT00THS. etc. all fully programmable. 
The output is displayed as an OSCILLOSCOPE-STYLE PLOT of the selected 
waveforms (Apple only) or as a printed table of voltage vs time. Handles upto 
200 notes and up to 20 sources. Requires 48 RAM $159.95 (g) 0 

CIRCUIT DESIGNER: Interactive HI-RES graphics program for designing electronic 
circuits Draw directly on the screen up to 10 different component types, 
including those referenced above. Components interconnect list for CIRCUIT 
SIMULATOR generated automatically. Requires $159.95 

MATHEMATICS SERIES: Entire Series $49.95 

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS I: This menu driven program performs LINEAR 
REGRESSION analysis, determines the mean, standard deviation and plots 
the frequency distribution of user-supplied data sets. Printer, Disk, I/O 
routines $19.95 

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS: HI-RES 2-Dimensional plot of any function. Automatic 
scaling At your option, the program will plot the function, plot the 
INTEGRAL plot the DERIVATIVE, determine the ROOTS. MAXIMA. MINIMA. 
INTEGRAL VALUE $19.95 

MATRIX: A general purpose, menu driven program for determining the 
INVERSE and DETERMINANT of any matrix, as well as the SOLUTION to any set 
of SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS $19.95 

3-D SURFACE PLOTTER: Explore the ELEGANCE and BEAUTY of MATHEMATICS 
by creating HI-RES PLOTS of 3-dimensional surfaces from any 3-variable 
equation. Disk save and recall routines for plots. Menu driven to vary 
surface parameters. Hidden line or transparent plotting $19.95 

ACTION ADVENTURE GAMES: Entire Series $29.95 ® 

RED BARON: Can you outfly the RED BARON? This fast action game simulates 
a machine-gun DOGFIGHT between your WORLD WAR I BI-PLANE and the 
baron's You can LOOP. DIVE. BANK or CLIMB-and so can the BARON. In HI-RES 

graphics plus sound $14.95 

BATTLE OF MIDWAY: You are in command of the U.S.S. HORNETS' DIVE- 
BOMBER squadron. Your targets are the Aircraft carriers. Akagi. Soryu and 
Kaga. You must fly your way through ZEROS and AA FIRE to make your 
DIVE-BOMB run In HI-RES graphics plus sound $14.95 

SUB ATTACK: It's April 1943. The enemy convoy is headed for the CONTROL 
SEA. Your sub. the MORAY, has just sighted the CARRIERS and BATTLESHIPS' 
Easy pickings. But watch out for the DESTROYERS - they're fast and deadly. 
In HI-RES graphics plus sound $14.95 

FREE CATAL0G-AII programs are supplied on disk and run on Apple II w /Disk 
& Applesoft ROM Card & TRS-80 Level II and require 32K RAM unless 
otherwise noted. Detailed instructions included. Orders shipped within 5 
days. Card users include card number. Add $1.50 postage and handling 
with each order. California residents add 6%% sales tax. Foreign orders add 
$5.00 postage and handling. 



SPECTRUM SOFTWARE 

142 Carlow, P.O. Box 2084 
Sunnyvale, CA 94087 




FOR PHONE ORDERS: (408) 738-4387 
DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED. 




Taylor P o h I m a n 



When last we left the Lone Ranger, huge boulders were 
crashing down the slope toward his tiny campfire. . . . No, I'm 
sorry to say that the September column wasn't quite that 
breathtaking or cliff-hanging. However, taking the Apple III 
out for a spin does excite a lot of people, and we hope that in- 
cludes you. If you haven't read last month's column, we 
recommend you get a copy. This series is progressive in that 
each article builds on the previous one. We're going to assume 
that you have been following the series, so that each month we 
can cover a new topic in the least possible amount of purple 
prose. 

Another reminder before we start: we welcome questions 
and comments on this series or on Basic in general. Because of 
deadlines, each article is being written before the previous 
month's is in print. Thus, reaction to your timely comment will 
be somewhat delayed. Let those cards and letters roll in, and 
the responses will show up just as soon as inhumanly possible. 

The SOS File System Revisited. After a brief discussion of 
the Apple III SOS file system, last month's column concluded 
with something of a challenge for you. We were working with a 
program to dump the contents of the screen to the Silentype 
printer, and we mentioned that the program could be gen- 
eralized for any file, including text files. The point was that 
SOS takes care of all the details about how each device works, 
so the user can change things at will. For reference, here's the 
program with which we were working: 

50 OPEN#l, ".silentype" 

90 INVOKE"readcrt.inv" 

150 FOR vp=l TO 23 

155 VPOS=vp 

160 FOR hp=l TO 80 

165 HPOS = hp 

170 PERFORM readc(@value%) 

180 PRINT#l ; CHR$(value%); 

190 NEXT hp 

200 PRINT#1 

210 NEXT vp 

900 VPOS=23:HPOS=l 

1000 END 

Before we modify this program to generalize it, did you try to 
simplify the program by using VPOS and HPOS directly in 
lines 150 and 160? By that we mean: 

150 FOR VPOS=l TO 23 

160 FOR HPOS=l TO 80 
If you did, you know that Basic will respond to this change with 
the classically familiar syntax error, because VPOS and HPOS 
are reserved words and cannot be used as index variables. 

To continue, the challenge was to generalize the screen 
dumping program so the output could go to any file. Here's one 
solution to that problem: 

50 VPOS=23:HPOS=l 

60 INPUT"Name of file to dump screen to: ";filename$ 
100 OPEN#l, filenames 



110 INVOKE"readcrt.inv" 

120 FOR vertical =1 TO 23 

130 VPOS = vertical 

140 FOR horizontal =1 TO 80 

150 HPOS = horizontal 

160 PERFORM readc(@value%) 

170 PRINT#l ; CHR$(value%); 

180 NEXT horizontal 

190 PRINT#1 

200 NEXT vertical 

210 CLOSE 

300 VPOS = 23:HPOS=l 
310 END 

Several differences are worthy of note. First, the cursor has 
been repositioned in line 50 to the bottom of the screen to avoid 
overwriting any existing data. The user is then prompted in 
line 60 to type in the name of the output file. Note that this can 
be any filename legal on the Apple III that accepts output 
(printers, the communications port, a disk text file, even 
.CONSOLE itself) . 

Note also the addition of the close statement at line 210. This 
ensures that all files are properly written to and dispensed with 
at the conclusion of the program. Failure to close files properly 
can leave some data still in memory (since files aren't auto- 
matically closed at the end of the program). This can have 
some interesting consequences if the file in question is a disk 
file and you switch to another diskette that doesn't have that 
file created on it. Now is the time to form the habit of closing all 
files at the end of a program. 

Running this program can be instructive. Obviously, if you 
reply ".SILENTYPE" to the prompt, it will work like the first 
example. Try replying ".CONSOLE" now. After the usual 
initial whirring of the disk to load the Invokable Module, the 
program appears to go to sleep for forty seconds or so. What's 
happening is that the program is reading a character and then 
copying it back on top of itself! The Apple III is working its lit- 
tle heart out, and the result is as exciting as watching bread 
mold. 

Now try replying with a disk file name (you can just make 
up a name, as long as it follows the filename rules). The disk 
will whir as before. This time Basic has a number of jobs to 
do. First, it must open the disk file using the name you gave 
it (let's assume you typed MYFILE. SCREEN) . Basic tells 
SOS to create the file (assuming it doesn't already exist) , by 
making an entry in the directory of the current disk volume 
and finding initial space for the file. Basic then sets up a buffer 
area in memory for communication of data to and from the 
file. Since Apple III divides the disk up into blocks of 512 char- 
acters, this internal buffer is 512 bytes. This buffer size is fixed 
no matter what record size you specify. Later on in this arti- 
cle, we'll look at techniques that use that piece of information 
to ensure maximum efficiency and performance in disk-based 
application programs. 

Once the file is opened, Basic then invokes the 



Introducing STC's Low-Cost Coloring Board 




$60. vs. 800. 

Introducing low-cost color 
graphics for Apple computers. 

To our knowledge, many other 
color graphic capabilities for the 
Apple cost at least $800. Now 
you can create, change, store 
and retrieve colored drawings 
for only $60. with STC's new 
Coloring Board program. 

For Education, Business, 
Industry, Entertainment. 

There are virtually unlimited uses 
for the Coloring Board, any 
situation that can benefit from 
graphic displays: classroom 
instruction, sales meetings, engi- 
neering parts drawings, home 
entertainment, you name it. You 
get high resolution and six colors: 
black, blue, white, green, orange 
and violet. You can combine 
graphics with alphanumerics of 
various sizes and colors, upper 
and lower case. 



Easy and Fun To Use. 

The Coloring Board is easy to 
learn and fun to use. No special 
equipment is needed, just your 
standard Apple game paddles 
(or joystick] and keyboard. 
And we've made it even easier. 
You can automatically generate 
arcs, circles, squares, rectangles, 
ellipses, triangles and other 
shapes. In addition, the basic 
package comes with a map of the 
world, a map of the U.S., a space 
shot and more. What's more, 
you can directly output your 
graphics to a printer. 

All for only $60 



Contact Your Local STC Dealer. 

We'll be happy to direct you to 
your local STC Coloring Board 
dealer. Just write or call Software 
Technology for Computers, P.O. 
Box 428, Belmont, Ma. 02178. 
(617] 923-4334. 

Be sure to look at our other 
business packages as well. 

Dealer inquiries invited. 

(Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer 
Company] 



^0 

W SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY for CC 



COMPUTERS 

PO Box 428. Belmont, MA 02178 (617) 923-4334 



OCTOBER 1981 



SOETJU g 



Readcrt module, and execution begins. Notice that, al- 
though the printer in our previous example started almost im- 
mediately, there is a noticeable pause before the disk spins into 
action, and it appears to spin only four times before the pro- 
gram stops. What's happening is this: line 170 prints one char- 
acter at a time into the buffer. After eighty characters, line 190 
prints a carriage return into the buffer and then starts the next 
line. After a little more than six lines of the screen (480 bytes 
plus six returns plus 26 bytes of line 7 to be exact) the 512 
byte buffer is full and must be written to disk. That's the first 
spin of the disk that writes the first block of the file. Next, the 
block number is incremented, and more writing starts from 
line 7 of the screen. 512 bytes later the same process is re- 
peated until all the screen is read by the program and written 
into the last buffer. Some arithmetic would convince you that 
Basic is in the middle of its fourth buffer when the program fin- 
ishes reading line 23 of the screen. That's when the previous 
comment about being sure to close files comes in handy. The 
Close command in line 210 forces the current buffer to be 
written to disk, even if it's not full, and the directory entry is 
updated to reflect the new file information. 

After running the program, the catalog listing of the file 
should look something like figure 1. 



TYPE BLKS NAME MODIFIED TIME 

TEXT 00005 MYFILE. SCREEN 00/00/00 00:00 



CREATED TIME 

00/00/00 00:00 



EOF 
1863 



Figure 1. 

Notice that Basic identified the file as a text file automatic- 
ally, because the Print# command was used to write to it. 
Notice also that the Blks used column shows five. That dis- 
agrees with what we had predicted, since the screen data 
should have been able to fit into four blocks (2048 bytes) . The 
reason for the extra block is that SOS allocates an extra block 
as an index block to store information about where the rest of 
the blocks in the file are physically located. This ensures that a 
large file can be created, even if the disk is fragmented into 
small areas of unused space. If you look closely at the direc- 
tories of various files, you will note that all of them have one 
more block than the EOF column would indicate, except for 
the one-block files, which have no need of an index block. In 
this case, the EOF (end of file) is after 1863 bytes. That works 
out to twenty-three lines of eighty characters (1840 bytes) plus 
twenty-three carriage returns for a total of 1863 bytes. "Close 
enough for folk music," as they used to say in high school. 

One last subject before we move on to further explore files. 
The Silentype gave us a permanent record of what was on the 
screen, but since we wrote the results to a disk file this time, 
we need a way to dump the contents of MYFILE. SCREEN to 
the printer. The following program easily accomplishes the 
task and serves as a general file-to-file transfer program: 



5 INPUT"Name of file to dump: ";inputfile$ 

10 OPEN#l,inputfile$ 

15 console=0 

20 INPUTFile to dump to: " ; outputfile$ 

25 OPEN#2,outputfile$ 

30 check$=MID$(outputfile$,l,3) 

35 IF check$ = ".co" OR check$ = ".CO" OR check$ = ".Co" 

40 IF console THEN HOME 

45 ON EOF#l GOTO 65 

50 INPUT#l ; a$ 

55 PRINT#2 ; a$ ; 

60 GOTO 50 

65 IF console THEN HPOS= l:VPOS = 23 



THEN console=l 



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70 CLOSE 
75 END 

There. As long as you don't try to read from the printer and 
print to the keyboard, it should work fine. 

Note that we've checked in line 35 to see if the device being 
written to is .CONSOLE. If so, line 40 clears the screen to re- 
produce exactly what was there when the original program 
was run. Line 65 repositions the cursor to the bottom of the 
screen so that the prompt will not cause the top line to scroll 
out of view. 

More on Files. The subtle and nefarious purpose of this les- 
son, if you haven't realized by now, is to provide more insight 
into Business Basic disk files. We've remained true to the 
promise of the first article and assumed that you are skilled in 
Basic, so hang on as things get more interesting. . . . 

So far, we've considered only the type of disk files referred 
to as text files. These are files that contain ASCII characters, 
which are representative of what would be printed out if we 
wrote data to the screen instead of disk. For now we'll stick 
with this file type and later touch on data files, a useful and 
relatively unique file type on the Apple in. 

We've already learned that the disk is organized into 512- 
byte blocks. In fact, Basic text file records can be of any rea- 
sonable size. Instead of using the Open statement, which as- 
signs a default of 512 bytes, we could have used the Create 
statement, which allows up to 32,767-byte records to be used. Of 
course, the record size of a particular file is of no consequence 
if we are merely going to read each string in order (as we did 
with the contents of the screen) . 

The real power of creating files of various record sizes is to 
be able to read data on a particular item in the film randomly 
without having to deal with the other data in the file. For ex- 
ample, if we had wanted to print the twenty-first line of the 



screen in the previous example, it would be necessary to input 
the first twenty lines, discard the data, and then finally read 
and print the line we wanted. A much more efficient way would 
be to create the file as a random access file with record size of 
eighty-one bytes. Since each record will correspond with one 
line of the screen, we have an easy way to address the data in 
question. Compare the examples below with the previous se- 
quential access examples: 

50 VPOS = 23:HPOS=l 

60 INPUT"Name of file to dump screen to: ",-filename$ 

70 CREATE filenames, TEXT,81 

100 OPEN#l, filenames ' 

110 INVOKE"readcrt.inv" 

115 cum$ = "" 

120 FOR vertical =1 TO 23 

130 VPOS = vertical 

140 FOR horizontal =1 TO 80 

150 HPOS = horizontal 

160 PERFORM readc(@value%) 

170 cum$ = cum$+CHR$(value%) 

180 NEXT horizontal 

190 PRINT#l,vertical ; cum$ 

195 cum$ = "" 

200 NEXT vertical 

210 CLOSE 

300 VPOS=23:HPOS=l 

310 END 

Note that we have added line 70 to create the filename with the 
proper record size. The notation of Text is extra baggage, 
since the Print statements in the program will automatic- 
ally define it as a text file, but it is good practice to be specific. 
I have also added a new wrinkle in lines 115, 170, 190, and 195. 
Instead of printing each character as it is read, the variable 
"cum$" is used to accumulate characters as they are read 




APPLE DISK & MEMORY UTILITY 



THE INSPECTOR 

These utilities enable the user to examine data 
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Reconstruct a blown VTOC. Weed out unwanted 
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Do you want to add so-called illegal line numbers 
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programmers do)? or input unavailable commands 
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AND MORE 
The INSPECTOR provides a USER exit that will 
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OCTOBER 1981 



SOETA 



115 



from the screen. Line 190 prints the entire line of the screen us- 
ing the vertical position as the record number. The result when 
running this program seems the same as when running the se- 
quential version, except for one thing. If you catalog the re- 
sulting filename, it should look something like figure 2 (as- 
suming a name of SCR.DUMP.RND). 

TYPE BLKS NAME MODIFIED TIME 

TEXT 00005 SCR.DUMP.RND 00/00/00 00:00 



CREATED TIME EOF 

00/00/00 00:00 1944 
Figure 2. 

Everything is the same except the length. It turns out that, 
when a file is created, the first record is record 0, not rec- 
ord 1. This is consistent with the first element of an array be- 
ing element 0. Therefore Basic has reserved twenty-four (not 
twenty-three) records of eighty-one bytes each for a total of 
1944 bytes. 

Now that we have associated a record number with every 
line on the original screen, we can locate a given line by just 
giving its number instead of having to read through all the 
other lines to find it. Witness the modified read program: 



5 


INPUT"Name of file to dump: ";inputfile$ 


10 


OPEN#l,inputfile$ 


15 


console = 0 


20 


INPUTFile to dump to: " ; outputfile$ 


25 


OPEN#2,outputfile$ 


30 


check$=MID$(outputf ile$, 1 ,3) 


35 


IF check$ = ".co" OR check$ = ".CO" OR check$ = ".Co" THEN console = 


40 


IF console THEN HOME 


45 


ON EOF#l GOTO 65 


47 


INPUT"record number to dump: ";rec 


48 


IF rec=0 THEN 65 


50 


INPUT#l,rec ; a$ 


55 


PRINT#2;a$; 


60 


GOTO 47 


65 


IF console THEN HPOS= 1 :VPOS = 23 


70 


CLOSE 


75 


END 



This program is very similar to the previous program except 
that line 47 asks for the specific record to dump, line 48 gives us 
a way out by checking for zero, and line 50 has been modified to 
read directly to the record number previously entered. 

Some experimentation with this program will produce inter- 
esting results. Try reading records 1, 6, 12, and 18. In each 
case, you will cause a disk access (the whirring is a clue) to 
read the particular record. Now try reading records 6, 7, 8, 9, 
and 10 in any order you choose. The first record you read will 
probably cause a disk access, but the others should occur virtu- 
ally instantaneously without causing disk activity. This is be- 
cause SOS is still buffering flies in 512-byte blocks, and all those 
records fall within one block. There was no need to reread the 
disk because the data was already in memory. Careful plan- 
ning of your record sizes and reading sequences can have the 
effect of substantially increasing the performance of your pro- 
gram, if as many reads as possible occur within the current 
buffer. 

One interesting postscript before we proceed: If you ask for 
record 6 there will typically be a disk read, as we've said. If 
you immediately request record 5, another disk read will be 
performed. This is what you might expect, but more is going 
on here than meets the eye. Simple calculation will prove that 
record 6 actually occupies space in both block 1 and block 2 of 
the file. The first six records, 0 through 5, occupy 6*81 or 486 
bytes of the first block, leaving only twenty-six bytes in that 
first block for record number 6. The remaining fifty- five bytes 
are in block 2. 

Thus a read to record 6 actually triggers two disk reads, one 
to load in block 1 for the first part of record 6, and one for block 
2 to obtain the remainder of the record. Therefore, when you 



requested record 5, Basic had to go back and reread block 1 
(remember, only one block is kept in memory per file). 

A little more arithmetic will show which other records are 
in this same situation. The moral is simple: if possible, make 
your record sizes such that they evenly divide into 512 or are a 
multiple of 512. That may waste a little space, but the waste 
may be more than compensated for in the ability to predict 
when disk access will take place. 

A Final Challenge. We just reviewed the last five or six par- 
agraphs and discovered that our usual humorous style has 
been replaced by long, detailed discourses of unrelieved te- 
dium. There is, unfortunately, no letup in sight. 

To this point we have been using "record number" files 
(called random access by most people) with record numbers 
that span a rather narrow range. SOS permits random files to 
have record numbers in the range of 0 to 32767. However, SOS 
does not demand that a file actually have all the records pres- 
ent on the disk. Records are allocated as written, with only a 
little space taken up to keep track of where everything is. To il- 
lustrate the power this gives, consider the following problem: 

A distribution company wants to keep track of their part 
numbers and descriptions. The part numbers are four-digit 
numbers. Following is a simple program to create the part 
number file. 

Between now and next time, you could try writing a pro- 
gram to retrieve part number information randomly and 
make changes as required. Without further ado . . . 

5 HOME 

10 PRINT"Parts file Create and Add program" 

20 PRINT 

30 PRINT"Type 1 to Create a parts file":PRINT 

40 PRINT"Type 2 to add to an existing parts file" 

50 PRINT:INPUT"Your selection: ",a$ 

60 IF a$ = "" THEN 1000 

70 a = VAL(a$) 

80 ON a GOTO 100,400 

90 GOTO 5 



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100 PRINT:INPUT"name of new parts file:",a$ 

1 10 IF a$ = "" THEN 5 

120 CREATE a$, TEXT,64 

130 PRINT'Parts file " ; a$ ; " created." 

140 GOTO 5 

400 PRINTrlNPUT'Name of existing parts file: ",a$ 
410 IF a$ = "" THEN 5 
420 OPEN#l,a$ 
430 HOME 

500 PRINT:INPUT"Part number to add: " ; a$ 
510 IF a$ = "" THEN 5 
520 a = VAL(a$) 

530 IF a<l OR a>32767 OR INT(a)Oa THEN 500 

535 rec = a 

540 rec$ = a$+"\" 

545 PRINT:INPUT"Description: " ; a$ 

550 IF LEN(a$)>30 THEN a$ = MID$(a$,l,30) 

560 rec$ = rec$ + a$+ , '\" 

570 PRINT:INPUT"location: " ; a$ 

580 IF LEN(a$)>10 THEN a$ = MID$(a$,l,10) 

590 rec$ = rec$ + a$ + "\" 

600 PRINT:INPUT"Quantity on hand: " ; a$ 

610 a = 0: a = VAL(a$): IF INT(a)Oa THEN 600 

620 rec$ = rec$ + a$+ v \" 

630 PRINT:PRINT"Record is: ",rec$," OK? " ; 

640 INPUT u ",a$ 

650 a$ = MID$(a$,l,l):IF a$<>"y" AND a$<>"Y" THEN 430 

660 PRINT#l,rec;rec$ 

670 PRINT:PRINT"Record added." 

680 GOTO 430 

1000 PRINTPRINT'End of parts file program." 
1010 CLOSE 
1020 END 

This does not presume to be a model program in terms of its 
error checking, efficency, or even logic design (note all the 
Gotos, patently offensive to the initiated). We tried to keep 
the program simple and straightforward, allowing plenty of 
room for improvements. One or two things are worth pointing 
out to help you with your inquiry program. Since each field 
could be of varying length within certain limits, the backslash 
character is used to delimit each item. You'll want to strip 
these out when you retrieve the record. Look up the function 
Instr; it'll make it easy. 

Once you've typed this program in, trying it out can be in- 
teresting. Try several values for part number, including some 
larger ones (greater than a thousand, at least) . Unless you add 
records that are sequential, each one will probably trigger a 
disk access as the appropriate block is written to disk. After 
adding several, get out of the program by typing Return to 
the part number and selection prompts and check out the cata- 
log entry on the file. Assuming you used the name MY. PARTS 
as a file name when you used the create option, the entry will 
look something like figure 3. 



TYPE BLKS 
TEXT 00007 



NAME 
MY. PARTS 



MODIFIED TIME 

00/00/00 00:00 



CREATED TIME 

00/00/00 00:00 



EOF 

85376 



Figure 3. 

Look at that EOF value ! It seems that you have a huge file un- 
til you notice that the Blocks Used column is still pretty small. 
What SOS has done is report the EOF at the end of the highest 
record number you used, while allocating only those blocks 
that it actually needed. Some micros (and some mainframes, 
for that matter) would require that all the blocks be allocated 
before any could be written. 

Well, have fun until next time. Then we'll try to lighten it up 
a little as we talk about the mysterious data file type and 
start using the massive amount of memory in the Apple III for 
some really fast indexing schemes. Before this series is over, 
you should be able to write some pretty hot database pro- 
grams. Till then, ponder the following: Is it true that disk- 
based programs are written by BLOCKheads? H 



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immn 



OCTOBER 1981 



BV JIM SALMONS 



The David Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development 
Center in Bethesda, Maryland, is one of those hush-hush mili- 
tary places where everything is clean and neat, and all the 
buildings are discreetly plain, so as not to reveal what is inside 
to nosy spy satellites. Within these halls, you can find aero- 
space engineer David Rousseau, who uses an Apple to do flight 
simulations of an exotic jet fighter aircraft. 

Rousseau is a member of the Special Vehicle Office, 
housed in the Aviation and Surface Effects Building. Rous- 
seau's work area is fairly typical, with the exception of the 
most incredible joystick you've ever seen sitting on a table 
next to an Apple. 

The pictures on the walls aren't typical, either, and help ex- 
plain Rousseau's professional excitement about his work. One 
is a drawing of the jet tank he designed to go fifty miles an hour 
on water before swooping up on the beach in a sea invasion. 
Another is a robotic reconnaissance plane that could fly for 
days, sniffing out enemy submarines. 

"And here's my pride and joy — the Power Augmented 
RAM Landing Craft," Rousseau beams, pointing to a third pic- 
ture. "I actually was the pilot for a one-fifth-scale prototype 
that we ran up to about sixty miles per hour." 

The landing craft is similar to a streamlined barge with two 
large jet engines sticking out the front on the end of a forward 
angled mast. The blast of the jets propel the craft while being 
directed under the hull to lift the boat on a cushion of air. This 
would allow the lander to carry more than a hundred soldiers 
and equipment at speeds of seventy to eighty miles per hour. 

Rousseau's obvious enthusiasm for his research is obvious 
as he explains his introduction to the Apple microcomputer: 
"VATOL is an acronym for Vertical Attitude Take Off and 
Land aircraft. The concept has been around for twenty years 
and has been proven in prototype flights of the Convair XYF-1 
and Ryan X-13." 

The idea, according to Rousseau, is simple in principle. Sit 
a plane on its tail and blast it off like a Buck Rogers rocket rath- 
er than using the traditional taxi and wing-lift take-off. Land- 
ing is similarly dramatic. Swoop the plane into a nose-up stall 
and blast the jets just enough to balance the plane like a pencil 
on the end of your finger. A hook on the nose engages a landing 
bar, and the plane hangs like a suit of clothes in the closet. 

But there's no bureaucratically administered research 
without politics. The VATOL concept had been moved to the 
back burner since the initial flight tests were performed with 
the limitations of twenty-year-old engine technology. Assump- 



tions about the lack of feasibility were based on outdated infor- 
mation, so research funding for the idea was very limited. 

"You might think all we do is pursue research all day, wild- 
ly spending taxpayers' money," Rousseau says. "It isn't true. 
Our funding is competitive. I have to be my own salesman. I 
come up with a design, develop a proposal, and start pounding 
the doors at the Pentagon, looking for someone to support the 
project. A member of the New Vehicle staff was a VATOL ad- 
vocate. Before leaving the group, he was able to attract a very 
small research grant to pursue modern VATOL technology." 

It's clear that engine and avionics technology has de- 
veloped to a degree that the aircraft could be built to carry a 
reasonable weapon payload. But what might it be like to fly a 
modern VATOL fighter? 

"The higher-ups at the Pentagon were convinced that a pi- 
lot would be incapable of adjusting to the transitions of verti- 



THE LAN GU 



Luck has a special meaning to Sam Cottrell, aphoristically 
communicated by a sign in his office: 

"Luck": Where Opportunity Meets Preparation 

Performance demands of the Navy VATOL flight simula- 
tor contract provided the opportunity to create MicroSpeed. 
Sam Cottrell brought the preparation. 

After leaving his childhood home of Greenwich, Connecti- 
cut, Cottrell earned an undergraduate degree in civil engi- 
neering at Cornell University. In 1954, he was called to active 
duty as a second lieutenant in the Air Force. First a civil engi- 
neer, then a student pilot, Cottrell became a flight instructor 
and logged a few thousand hours in the air. 

With Air Force encouragement to continue developing his 
professional skills, he attended the University of Chicago and 
received the MBA in research and development management. 
The, Air Force rewarded him with a management position at 
their Albuquerque research and development center. Cottrell 
administered projects in the development of directed-energy 
weapons — Buck Rogers things like particle beam and laser 
cannons. But three years flying a desk was too much. He was 
grabbing his desk-set pen instead of a cockpit joystick. 

Cottrell volunteered to join the Starfighters when action be- 
gan to accelerate in Vietnam. After an exhilarating crash 
course in air combat, he was off to Southeast Asia. 



OCTOBER 1981 



mum 



119 



Souped-Up 
Supersonic 
Simulator 




David Rousseau (left) takes great pride in his high-speed Apple outfitted with a joystick the 
like of which no arcade can match (above). 



cal to horizontal flight. They felt the maneuvers would be phys- 
iologically disorienting," Rousseau explains, "so in 1979, with a 
tiny budget, we were challenged to prove them wrong." 

Rousseau and his research colleagues needed to test pilot 
reactions to a plane that hadn't been built. The obvious solu- 
tion was a flight simulator, but such simulators were routinely 
huge investments and amazingly complex devices using main- 
frame computers. 

Limitations to problem solutions are often the stimulus to 
innovation. So it was the squeeze of the funding that brought 
the first Apple to the David Taylor Naval Ship R&D Center. It 
came under the arm of Sam Cottrell, professional problem 
solver. 

"Sam had flown one hundred Vietnam combat missions in 
an F-104 Starfighter while I was still in high school," Rousseau 
says. "He retired from the military and has his own consult- 



ing firm near here. He's also a whiz at computers and engi- 
neering. So we were pretty confident that he could handle the 
simulator contract. I can't tell you exactly what he did, except 
that he developed his own super-high-speed language system 
for the Apple." 

"It's a rather ingenious package that contains a hardware 
unit using an AMD 9511 math processor chip and a software 
unit that includes his own variation on the minicomputer Forth 
language," Rousseau explains. "Amazingly, Sam was able to 
get this Apple to calculate fast enough to give a realistic simu- 
lation of the head up display of a hypothetical aircraft that out- 
performs any jet fighter ever built!" 

The head up display, or HUD, is like something out of Star 
Wars. At the speeds of today's fighters, the pilot cannot afford 
to look away from the view out the front of the cockpit. So you 
don't see dials and gauges in the planes; instead, there are up 
GOTO 122 



<VGE OF SPEED 



Two years and one hundred North Vietnam combat mis- 
sions later, Cottrell came home to a creative research and de- 
velopment job in the combat applications group at Eglin Air 
Force Base. Working on problems surfacing in Vietnam com- 
bat, with the necessity for quick, practical solutions, refined 
Sam's problem-solving skills. 

He also attended the Army Command and General Staff 
College, where he learned to study old wars using today's 
weapons. Cottrell started using computers in mathematical 
modeling. 

After graduating, Cottrell hit the big leagues with a super- 
cerebral assignment at the Pentagon in the USAF studies and 
analysis group. Computers were still big and expensive, ne- 
cessitating a whole floor of support personnel to produce air 
warfare simulations. 

Cottrell developed an appreciation for the computer's po- 
tential as a vital tool in analytical problem solving, but he had 
little reason to expect his future would revolve around small 
and inexpensive computing. Steves Wozniak and Jobs were 
probably surfing or building hot-rods in their now-famous ga- 
rage, and an Apple was still something you ate. 

He next took his knowledge of computers to the manage- 
ment of an avionics and fighter maintenance organization. 
Then, after, precisely twenty years' service, he retired. 

In 1974, Cottrell returned to the Washington, D.C., area and 




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OCTOBER 1981 S O E T A~ 



hung out his shingle as an analytical consultant. When people 
asked him what kind of consultant he was, he asked what kind 
of problem they had. Cottrell got contracts by agreeing to per- 
form complex analytical studies that would have cost a for- 
tune to perform on mainframe computers. This often meant 
wearing his fingers to the bone on the keypad of a mid-seven- 
ties programmable calculator. 

Cottrell founded Apple Analytics as the corporate iden- 
tity for his growing consulting business in September 1976. He 
watched as the microcomputer left the wirewrapping hobby- 
ist stage and emerged as a viable problem-solving tool. After a 
year of shopping, he bought a 32K Apple II. He calls Apple "the 
magic rubber computer" because of its flexibility, expand- 
ability, and Apple Inc.'s willingness "to open the black box" — 
to allow user adaptation through peripheral interfacing and 
software exploitation. 

Using a tape recorder and the family TV to round out his 
first system, Cottrell took on analytic assignments unap- 
proachable on his calculator tools. His clients were amazed at 
the analyses he could produce on very limited budgets. Of 
course they didn't see the endless hours Cottrell spent pro- 
gramming in Applesoft Basic to achieve the results. 

Now back to opportunity. When the Navy was faced with 
the complex VATOL simulation and a limited budget, they nat- 
urally thought of Cottrell, who was establishing a reputation 
for doing big things on small computers. 

Most would have laughed at a request to make a micro per- 
form a real-time simulation of an aircraft faster and more ma- 
neuverable than any plane ever built — but not Cottrell. Faced 
with a problem in aerial combat, you assume solvability. You 
have to; it means survival. Cottrell approached the simulator 
problem in the same way and began investigating alterna- 
tives that would allow fast hi-res graphics generated by heavy 
computational models. 

He started surveying available languages on the Apple and 
focused on Forth, which had the dynamic flexibility he wanted 
but lacked floating point calculation capability. Seeking a 



1T& 121 

hardware contribution to the floating point problem, Cottrell's 
intuition was confirmed by an Alan Winston column in the 
June 1979 issue of Call-APPLE magazine. Winston suggested 
marrying Forth to the CCS 7811 arithmetic processor board. A 
whimsical suggestion to most readers, it gave Cottrell insight 
into the solution of the supersonic Apple challenge. 

A kluge of Forth and the math chip powered the Navy 
VATOL simulator. Ben Mason, Air Force retiree and CCS soft- 
ware developer, and a handful of talented technical friends 
helped Cottrell expand and improve what has become Applied 
Analytic 's first commercial product. 

MicroSpeed is a threaded, stack-oriented, extensible lan- 
guage. The language begins as a small collection of syntacti- 
cal rules and a dictionary of verbs, or words as they are called 
in most Forths. Instead of putting a specific set of commands 
together in convoluted ways as with traditional programming, 
the MicroSpeed user defines new verb-words where each defi- 
nition uses only previously defined verb-words put together in 
grammatically acceptable sentences. A program is essential- 
ly a macro verb-word consisting of recursive nests of gram- 
matically consistent verb- word sentences. The user extends 
the overall system rather than writing programs using the in- 
frastructure of an imposed command set. 

MicroSpeed is now used to enhance imaging radar on the 
NASA space shuttle. In Washington state, MicroSpeed is being 
taught abstract expressionist painting. Businesspeople are us- 
ing it for commodity analysis and macroeconomics. Though 
the fundamental language is the same, each version of Micro- 
Speed takes on the characteristics given by its user and be- 
comes unique. 

Cottrell's product reflects his taste in fast, maneuverable 
fighter aircraft. The math chip provides the speed, and the 
user-extendable nature of Forth provides the dynamic flexibil- 
ity. And just as Cottrell's life has been characterized by his 
pursuit of new skills and knowledge, MicroSpeed provides a 
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to three small CRT monitors showing vital information in 
graphic symbols and alphanumeric readouts. Any one of these 
images can be projected on an angled piece of glass that's in 
the pilot's line of sight looking straight out the cockpit wind- 
screen. 



The effect is similar to the range finder of a camera where 
you see the real world image with important symbols and num- 
bers superimposed. If the pilot switches to the targetting sub- 
system, the HUD symbology graphics are visual enhance- 
ments that come from the plane's computer analysis of radar 
information. The pilot switches on the missile system. When 
the little enemy plane symbol is maneuvered into the graphic 
flashing ring kill zone, an automatically fired rocket is guar- 
anteed to hit the mark. 

The HUD's graphics are strangely similar to the innocent 
displays of arcade space games — except what goes on out front 
of the HUD is anything but innocent. It's kind of frightening, 
and allusions to Star Wars are disconcertingly appropriate, es- 
pecially when the modern VATOL's flight characteristics are 
considered. 

Today's engine technology provides such thrust and nim- 
ble handling that the modern VATOL could perform as if it 
were out in space, defying gravity. Imagine a dogfight where 
the plane being chased can kick its tail around, shoot at the 
chaser, and blast off in another direction, even flying straight 
up! 

A less gruesome image for the HUD is the take-off and land- 
ing display. The plane's sensors pick up signals from the air- 
field or aircraft carrier deck. These signals are converted into 
a line display depicting the take-off and landing site. Real-time 
simulation of this take-off and landing HUD was what Sam 
Cottrell was able to accomplish with a souped-up Apple com- 
puter. 



J A |_ K OCTOBER 1981 

"What you see on the monitor is the HUD without the real 
world on the other side," Rousseau explains. "The right an- 
gled, green goal post is the nose hook bar where the plane rests 
when not in flight. The red lines delineate the landing area and 
represent the width of the field at two-hundred- foot intervals. 
These red lines give the pilot a sense of depth during the ap- 
proach for a landing. The blue line is the horizon. The little 
symbols above and to the right of the line graphics give the pi- 
lot instant information about the pitch, airspeed, and related 
information crucial to making rapid flight corrections. 

"The stick on the left is the throttle, and this amazing one on 
the right is the pitch of the nose up and down. Since this simu- 
lator is for testing take-off and landing, we didn't worry about 
flying left and right. You blast off, lifting from the landing bar, 
and fly in a big loop to return and shoot a landing, like this," 
Rousseau demonstrates as he grabs the sticks. 

Rousseau makes it look rather simple. The line graphics 
fluidly move on the screen giving a dramatic sensation of the 
hypothetical jet's movement. Rousseau hangs the plane back 
up on the landing bar, shakes the stick, and invites a fledgling 
to take over. 

Thank heaven it's only a simulator! Taking off is a piece of 
cake. The green goal posts drop away, the red lines of airstrip 
slip behind. The newcomer then proceeds to demolish about 
two hundred million dollars worth of hypothetical fighters— un- 
doubtedly qualifying him as an enemy ace. He smashes into 
the runway. He flies upside-down into the ocean. He even 
ditches into the ocean tail-first. The stall and balance-a-pencil- 
on-the-fingertip procedure escapes him. 

Each time he crashes, he is given a mathematical readout 
telling exactly where he died, at what speed, and in what posi- 
tion the plane was at impact. This Apple is obviously doing a 
lot of complex aeronautical calculations at high speeds to pro- 
vide such a sensation of fluid movement. 

"Don't be distressed about your performance. You should 
have seen some of the pilots we tested," Rousseau offers the 
downcast novice; "in fact, after Sam dropped the simulator 
off, we flew it unsuccessfully for a week. We called Sam and 
told him something must be wrong, that the plane was too sen- 
sitive during landing. The balancing blasts kept causing a 
rapid pitchover. Sam assured us that he had delivered a simu- 
lator that mathematically matched the performance charac- 
teristics of the contract." 

The result is a case where a simulator can provide design 
improvements before a prototype is ever built. The pitchover 
was the result of a flight dynamic that was traced to a portion 
of the mathematical model of the performance characteris- 
tics, dictated by the contract. Cottrell derived a mathematical 
compensation for the aerodynamic characteristic, modified 
the simulator software accordingly, and the plane became fly- 
able. 

You might think this is cheating, but this is exactly how 
such a problem would be addressed in a sophisticated jet fight- 
er. In effect, the actual plane would be built with its on-board 
computers programmed to analyze and compensate for this 
pitchover characteristic automatically. 

"There are planes in service today that wouldn't be flyable 
if it weren't for the on-board computers," Rousseau goes on. 
"Sam's simulator helped us improve this plane's design. In 
turn, this will help make modern VATOL a more serious con- 
tender for continued research to provide us with the best pos- 
sible defense equipment. It may be a while before this VATOL 
plane gets built, if ever. But we've taken a very small budget 
and answered a lot of important questions using the Apple. 
VATOL has a brighter future now." 

The science fiction future is here today. 

Like a Buck Rogers sci-fi serial, the story doesn't end here. 
Sam Cottrell, president of Applied Analytics and creator of 
the VATOL simulator, is a multitalented man, and there's a 
parallel between his own creative style of problem solving and 
the characteristics of his commercial product, the Micro- 
Speed Language Development System. A visit with Cottrell ac- 
companies this article. 



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OCTOBER 1981 



apple in small letters 

a survey of lower-case adapters 



BY JEFFREY MAZUR 



While most programming and 
applications for a personal computer do 
not require lower-case capability, this 
feature is nearly essential for word pro- 
cessing. One of the first complaints about 
the Apple II was its lack of lower-case 
characters. 

Solving this problem is relatively 
simple, however, and Dan Paymar was 
the first to offer the necessary hardware 
commercially. His Lower Case Adapter 
opened the door to develop sophisticated 
word processors, communications 
modules, and other software that could 
take advantage of the Apple's newly 
acquired power. 

Several different approaches to 
adapting the Apple for lower case have 
since been developed. Some involve 
hardware modification, and others use 
software to perform the same task. This is 
a great example of the dichotomy of 
computer systems: most problems can 
be solved either with hardware or soft- 
ware. Before getting into the details, let's 
define the three areas where changes 
must be made to allow lower-case 
characters on the Apple. 

Any computer can be simply 
described as the connection of four 
functions: input, memory, processing, 
and output. In the case of a typical Apple, 
input would refer to the keyboard; 
memory would be in the form of RAM in 
the computer or floppy disk storage. The 
Apple's 6502 CPU along with the system 
Monitor, operating system, and any 
application program constitute the pro- 
cessing function of the computer. Output 
is generally displayed on the video screen 
or possibly via a printer. 

The Apple was designed to work with 
upper-case letters in all four areas, and it 
does this well. However, only the 
memory portion of the computer is cap- 
able of handling lower case without 



modification. Some changes must be 
made to the other three functions to allow 
complete upper-case/lower-case 
operation. 

Lower Case Screened. Lower-case 
display by the Apple has a two-phase 
history that begins in the way video is 
generated by the computer. Basically, 
what is displayed on the video monitor 
starts off as a block of memory ($400 to 
$800) in the Apple's RAM. One byte of 
memory corresponds to each character 
seen on the screen. A special portion of 
the Apple's circuitry — the video genera- 
tor — constantly reads this area of RAM 
and translates it into the rows of dots that 
make up each line of the display. The 
actual conversion from byte (eight-bit) 
data to character (5x7-dot) data is done 
by a single device called a character 
generator ROM. 

In the original Apple II, the specific 
chip used was a 2513, which is a 2,560-bit 
ROM that can decode sixty-four different 
characters. This is just enough to include 
the alphabet, numbers, and necessary 
punctuation, but not lower-case letters. 
Fortunately, there is another 2513 ROM 
chip available, programmed with lower- 
case letters instead of upper-case. 

These two chips can be connected in 
the circuit, and you can switch between 
the two, depending on the case desired. 
In the early days, this was accomplished 
by actually soldering the two ICs 
together pin-to- pin, except for one select 
pin on each chip. 

Then Dan Paymar designed the 
Lower-Case Adapter, which made the job 
much simpler. Paymar's original 
adapter was a small piggyback board 
that contained the extra 2513 and one 
logic chip for selection, making the whole 
modification a matter of plugging things 
in and out. 

The first dilemma that arose from 
this scheme was how to switch between 
the two chips. Since the normal Apple 
had only sixty-four characters, this re- 
quired only six bits (two to the sixth 



124 



equals sixty-four) to represent any 
character, leaving two extra bits in each 
byte of display memory unused. The Ap- 
ple's designers took advantage of this by 
allowing inverse and flashing modes for 
all characters. 

The Paymar board maps the normal 
ASCII lower-case letters to display cor- 
rectly but does not allow for inverse or 
flashing lower-case characters. It does 
this by selecting the lower-case 2513 
whenever the top three bits are all ones. 

Newer lower-case boards replaced 
the dual 2513s with a 2716 programmable 
ROM allowing custom-made character 
sets. Expanded connections to other 
parts of the Apple motherboard gave ac- 



finnin 

cess to the complete character cell (the 
first and last column of dots for each 
character had been left blank to leave a 
space between), making it possible to 
define special symbols and line drawing 
graphic sets. 

Although it is impossible to have com- 
plete normal, flashing, and inverse sets, 
which would require at least nine bits per 
character, it is possible to have a com- 
plete normal set and an inverse set. Some 
of the newer boards offer a switchable se- 
lection between flashing upper case or in- 
verse lower case. This is important be- 
cause some programs, such as the Pas- 
cal Editor, use an inverse cursor. When 
this cursor is placed over a lower-case 



OCTOBER 1981 



letter, it will change it to some weird 
punctuation or digit if provisions aren't 
made for inverse lower case. 

Complicating matters more, on its 
seventh revision of the motherboard 
(about Juiy 1980), Apple changed the 
video generation circuits considerably. 
Enter phase two. With the new boards, 
all that's required to generate lower case 
is replacement of the character genera- 
tor ROM, which is now 2716 compatible. 
None of the old lower-case adapters work 
with the newer boards, but, with them, 
obtaining lower case is as simple as 
changing one chip. 

Or is it? The answer is a qualified yes. 
Unfortunately, the problem with inverse 
lower case is back again. Therefore, 
most of the sophisticated lower-case 
adapters have been modified for the new- 
er revision boards. 

No discussion on lower case would be 
complete without mentioning an alto- 
gether different approach, using the Ap- 
ple's hi-res graphics display. Several 
RAM and ROM versions of programs to 
add lower case this way have appeared 
on the market, leading to the Keyboard 
Filter firmware for the Mountain Com- 
puter ROMPlus+. 

This had the advantage of requiring 
no extra hardware (unless you count the 
ROMPlus+ and the firmware chip), no 
modification to the Apple (unless you add 
the shift-key wire), and mixed text with 
graphics. Also added was the ability to 
have colored letters, multiple user-de- 
fined fonts, keyboard macros, and a few 
more goodies. 

The price, however, was too great: 
loss of 8K of RAM for the graphics dis- 
play, incompatibility with certain pro- 
grams (for example, those that call di- 
rectly upon the video screen memory), 
very slow scrolling speed, and other dis- 
advantages. 

Keying in Lower Case. Once the Ap- 
ple is capable of displaying lower case, 
there needs to be some way of entering it 
from the keyboard. As it stands, all let- 
ters typed on the keyboard come out as 
upper case; the shift key has no effect, 
except on a few special characters. The 
simplest solution to this problem is to 
write an input routine to handle 
upper/lower case shifting. 

Usually, the escape key or the for- 
ward arrow key is used to signify a shift 
operation. Pressed once, it will capita- 
lize only the next letter; pressed twice in 
a row, it activates a shift lock, capitaliz- 
ing all letters until it's pressed once 
more. This software approach has the ad- 
vantage of requiring no hardware modifi- 
cation to the Apple. However, the two- 
step shifting operation does take getting 
used to. 

By adding one small wire from the 
keyboard's shift key to the game I/O con- 
nector (or by using the ROMPlus+), it's 
possible to regain use of the shift key as it 
would work on a typewriter. This modifi- 
cation still requires some software to 



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CONTEXT 




OCTOBER 1981 



SOETAI V 



read the shift key status from the I/O 
port, but this is incorporated into many 
existing programs. This is a good mix be- 
tween hardware and software solutions 
to the problem. 

For the purist, it would be desirable to 
modify the Apple's keyboard so that it 
can generate lower-case characters. Sev- 
eral items have appeared recently that 
accomplish this. Since there is no real 
shift-lock key, this function still has to be 
simulated with some other key like ctrl 
or reset. 

The remaining ASCII characters un- 
available on the standard Apple key- 
board are also usually offered by press- 
ing various combinations of keys. One 
such keyboard expander even has a 
typeahead buffer that stores what you 
type until the computer is ready to read 
it. 

Lower-Case Ability Must Be 
Processed. Even after lower-case key- 
board and display adapters have been 
added to the Apple, no changes will be 
evident when the computer is first turned 
on. This is because the Monitor routine, 
used bv the operating system and Basic 
to read the keyboard, converts all lower- 
case input into upper case. This isn't a 
problem if lower case is used only when 
running a word-processing or text-editor 
program that has its own software to 
read the keyboard. However, to include 
lower case in Basic programs requires a 
new input routine to be added to the 
operating system. Many lower-case 
adapters come with software that allows 
these amenities. However, although 
lower-case text may be included in a Ba- 
sic remark or print statement, all other 
program text or commands must be in 
upper case for the Apple to recognize 
them. If you're particularly enterprising 
and own a language card, even this ob- 
stacle can be overcome by making ap- 
propriate patches to the command pro- 
cessors in Basic and DOS. 

Now ... to the Hardware: Dan Pay- 
mar's Lower-Case Adapters. The Pay- 
mar Lower Case Adapter for older Ap- 
ples (LCA-1) is a small plug-in board and 
header socket connected by a wire. In- 
stallation involves removing two ICs, re- 
placing them in sockets on the board and 
header, and then placing the board and 
header into the empty sockets on the 
motherboard. The LCA-2 for newer Ap- 
ples involves changing only one IC. In- 
structions are adequate, and the patches 
needed to use lower case with Pascal and 
Apple Writer are given. 

For the price of the disk, a software 
support package is available called 
DICE (Dan's I/O Control Enhance- 
ments). This software allows entry of 
lower case using the escape key. The size 
of the cursor identifies whether the 
upper-case or lower-case mode is in ef- 
fect. Normal cursor movements (given 
up by using the escape key for shifting) 
are duplicated by new control key se- 
quences. On top of all this, there are a lot 



more features available with just a few 
keystrokes. (Setting text/graphics 
modes, monitor entry, and user jump 
commands are a few.) 

The character set uses pushed up 
lower-case letters to give descenders the 
illusion of descending. Whether or not 
you like the look of some characters, 
there's no way to change them because 
they're in ROM. The Lower-Case 
Adapters carry a one-year warranty and 
sell for $60 (LCA-1), $50 (LCA-2), and 
$5.00 for the DICE diskette. 

Dockside Computer Unitext. 
Installing the Universal Text Display 
Module is a little more complicated than 
the Paymar chip. For the Model A (Re- 
vision 6 or earlier) , a total of five sepa- 
rate pieces are inserted at various loca- 
tions on the motherboard, including the 
game I/O socket. An additional wire is in- 
cluded for making the shift key attach- 
ment, if desired. (This involves a small 
bit of soldering.) 

A comprehensive and well-written 
owner's manual describes the many fea- 
tures and operation of the Unitext in Ba- 
sic and Pascal. Complete software is in- 
cluded on diskette for both languages, in- 
cluding automatic switching to the in- 
verse lower-case mode when in Pascal. 

The basic software uses a control-Q as 
a shift key (unless the shift-key wire has 
been added), with automatic return to 
shift lock after each line is entered. The 
control-Q is also used as a lead-in key to 
produce some of the extra ASCII char- 
acters not found on the Apple keyboard. 

The character set is stored in a 2716 
EPROM and is thus changeable. How- 
ever, the set you get is good-looking. It 
provides true descenders while keeping 
lower-case letters on the same baseline 
as upper case. The only tradeoff here is 
that, whenever a lower-case descender is 
just above an ascender from the char- 
acter below on the next line, there's a col- 
lision — that is, there's no space between 
the two letters. Most of the time these col- 
lisions are not objectionable, and in 
most text, the collisions occur less than 
two percent of the time. 

Two models are available for any Ap- 
ple; the price is $80. 

Lazer Microsystems Lower Case 
+Plus. The Lower Case +Plus is unique 
in that it's been designed to work in any 
revision Apple. A set of printed circuit 
pads are arranged so that connection to 
one side configures the board for early 
Apples, while connection to the other side 
converts it to work with new Apples. Al- 
though the board will usually come set up 
for the particular revision needed, it's 
nice to know it can be changed easily to 
go in a different machine. 

Another difference in this unit is the 
way it's installed. Although a total of four 
ICs are removed from the Apple's 
motherboard, all those that go back plug 
into sockets on the Lower Case +Plus. 
Then the entire board is placed into the 
Apple in one piece, with pins going into 



JCA? 




Via Del Monte 
'Palps Verdes Estates 
California. 90274 



128 



Csmiri 



OCTOBER 1981 



all four empty motherboard sockets at 
the same time. It takes a bit of pushing, 
but the end result is a very neat piggy- 
back module with no extra wires. 

The character set supplied does not 
have true descenders, and even some of 
the normal characters have been 
changed. Fortunately, the board is 2716 
compatible, so any character set (in fact, 
two complete 128-character sets) can be 
programmed. 

Also, the Lower Case +Plus format is 
compatible with the Keyboard Filter and 
ROMPlus+. Therefore, if you like, you 
can use the font editor program supplied 
with the Keyboard Filter to examine and 
make changes on the Lower Case +Plus 
character set. After everything is just the 
way you want it, you can burn the pri- 
mary set, along with a secondary set, 
into EPROM. 

Other features of the Lower Case 
+Plus include alternate character set se- 
lection, inverse lower-case mode, com- 
plete 7x8 font size access, and an expan- 
sion socket for future products. Included 
on disk are the LSIE (Lazer Systems' In- 
put Editor) software and a program to 
patch Apple Writer for lower case. The 
LSIE allows lower-case entry using the 
escape key for shifting. Normal cursor 
movements are still supported using con- 
trol keys. The Lower Case +Plus sells for 
$65. 



Revision 7 Character Generator Re- 
placement. Since lower case on the new- 
er Apples is only a ROM away, several 
companies have begun to offer lower- 
case adapters, generators, or whatever 
for $25 to $30. This is a no-frills approach, 
but the low cost makes it attractive. The 
only differences among units in this cat- 
egory seem to be in the character set ap- 
pearance and in whatever software is in- 
cluded. Deltrex has a low-priced ROM, 
for instance, but some of the character 
formations are not impressive. Legend 
Industries sells a ROM with a set includ- 
ing true descenders. Simple instructions 
and a very crude lower-case entry rou- 
tine are also included. The LJK Enter- 
prises Lower Case Character Genera- 
tor at $35 has true descenders and soft- 
ware for direct input of lower case. Lazer 
Microsystems has the Lower Case +Plus 
II, which is simply a ROM and includes 
their LSIE input software, and sells for 
$30. The Paymar LCA-2 at $50 also comes 
under this heading. 

Lazer Microsystems Keyboard 
+Plus. This clever board mounts on the 
inside wall of the Apple's case. Velcro 
strips enable you to remove the board if 
you need to. Installation involves one IC 
header and soldering two wires to the 
keyboard. After all this is done, the key- 
board takes on several new dimensions. 

First, the reset key becomes the shift- 



lock/unlock control with the keyboard de- 
faulting to shift-lock for normal Apple 
operation. After the first press of the re- 
set key, all letters typed will be entered 
as lower case unless the shift key is 
pressed simultaneously — just like a real 
typewriter. Resetingthe computer is now 
performed by the control-reset se- 
quence. 

Next, by pressing the control key in 
conjunction with most of the nonalpha- 
betic keys, you can obtain the rest of the 
ASCII set normally unavailable on the 
Apple keyboard. 

Finally, this board contains a key- 
board typeahead buffer. This means 
that, while the computer is busy process- 
ing (loading a tape, going to the disk, 
sitting in a loop, and so on, you can keep 
on typing and the buffer will store up to 
sixty-four characters until the computer 
is ready to read it. This can greatly speed 
up typical operations with the computer. 
There are a few quirks to watch out for, 
but this feature is quite nice to have. 

A special clear-buffer command is in- 
cluded to empty the buffer. This is vital to 
preserve compatibility with nonbuffered 
Apples — for example, using the control-C 
to interrupt a Basic program. 

The biggest problem the keyboard 
buffer may cause is that some pro- 
grams — most notably games — won't 
function correctly. As a temporary solu- 
tion for gamers, Lazer Systems has come 
up with a slight modification, adding a 
bypass switch to the keyboard buffer. If 
you already own a Keyboard +Plus or 
are contemplating buying one, be sure to 
write the company for details. The Key- 
board +Plus retails for $100. 

And Still More Hardware. Two other 
units were unavailable for evaluation. 
The Keyboard and Display Enhancer 
from Videx sells for $129, and a key- 
board encoder board from Basis sells for 
$125. 

Choosing the Right Lower-Case 
Hardware. Before considering the pur- 
chase of any lower-case hardware, you 
must determine which type of Apple you 
have. The easiest way to do this is by 
opening the cover of your Apple and look- 
ing at the area of the motherboard along 
the left edge next to the letters D, E, and 
F. If there are three black boxes labeled 
"memory select," then you have a revi- 
sion 6 or earlier motherboard. 

Next, you should consider whether di- 
rect lower-case input will be needed. 
Your pocketbook usually makes this de- 
cision, since lower-case display may cost 
as little as $25, but full lower-case opera- 
tion will set you back at least $125. If your 
only use of lower case will be with com- 
mercial software packages such as word 
processors, you won't require input hard- 
ware. Just make sure the software you 
choose supports lower-case add-ons and 
the hard-wire shift-key modification if 
you want it. 

Finally, don't forget that all eighty- 
column boards include lower case. HI 



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130 j§SQETALK October lis? 

The Controller Even You Can Make 



BV SILAS WARMER 



A fast-growing section of the small computer market today 
is in controllers — small computers with inputs and outputs 
specially designed to sense and control electrical equipment. 
The average packaged home microcomputer, though, is de- 
signed to display its output on a TV screen or monitor, sound it 
through a speaker, or record it on a cassette or disk. It is de- 
signed to take its input from a keyboard, cassette, disk, or 
handheld controllers. These are enough for interacting with 
people, but not very good for connection to other electronic 
equipment. 

Apple II computer users are luckier than most in making 
these connections, since the Apple II comes with a game I/O 
connector. This connector has four paddle connections that 
sense the resistance across them. It also has three switch 
connections that sense switch closings and four annunciator 
outputs that send TTL signals from the computer. But seven 
inputs and four outputs are still very few when you want 
to control, say, a multizone security system or a robot. 

The Apple also has seven peripheral slots — connectors de- 
signed to feed Apple I/O signals to special devices. But the sig- 
nals on these slot pins are too complex for the beginner to wire. 
What is needed is a simple circuit to convert the complex 
Apple signals into outputs that can be simply wired to the de- 
vices to be sensed and controlled. 

Enter the APMOD, a simple peripheral card manufac- 
tured by Connecticut Microcomputer. The APMOD is de- 
signed to connect an Apple to CMC's AIM16 line of analog-to- 
digital converters. But, to an experimenter, it's a simple inter- 
face card that generates eight TTL-level outputs and accepts 
eight TTL-level inputs. Wiring those outputs and inputs to 
other electrical devices is the subject of this article. 

Photo 1 shows the two sides of the APMOD card: the left, or 
circuit, side and the right, or component, side. Note that there 




Photo 1. 

are two sets of pins projecting from the two long edges of the 
card. The longer pin-set goes toward the bottom and plugs into 
the Apple's peripheral slot. (Any slot can be used — even slot 
0 — though that slot probably should be kept free for language 
or ROM cards.) 

The shorter pin-set on the top is where the input and output 
signals are connected. Diagram 1 shows the layout of the sig- 
nals at this pin-set. There are two ground pins and two uncon- 
nected pins. There are also eight output pins, which can be 
switched from low to high logic level, and there are eight input 
pins, which sense the TTL logic level of the wires feeding them. 



To rear of Apple 



GROUND 






GROUND 


IN 16 


I 




IN 1 


IN 32 






IN 2 


IN 64 


m 




■ 


IN 4 


IN 128 


■ 




■ 


IN 8 


N.C. * 


■ 




■ 


N.C* 


OUT 32 


■ 




■ 


OUT 16 


OUT 128 


■ 




■ 


OUT 64 


OUT 4 


■ 




■ 


OUT 1 


OUT 8 


■ 


_ 


■ 


OUT 2 



*May be connected to +5 volts: see Photo 2 

Diagram 1 
APMOD pin-set layout (top view) 

TTL Logic Levels. Up to now, I've been tossing the term TTL 
logic level about pretty freely. Before we go any further, let's 
stop and find out what that means. TTL stands for "transistor- 
transistor logic," an older but still popular form of integrated 
circuit used in digital electronics, including some parts of the 
Apple II. In TTL logic, a low level is 0 volts with respect to 
ground. (Any voltage below 0.5 volt will do.) A high level is +5 
volts with respect to ground (anything between three and five 
volts will do.) Never put a negative voltage or a voltage above 
5.0 volts on a TTL circuit; chances are, you'd blow out the cir- 
cuit! 

In general, TTL circuits work by grounding low outputs 
rather than sending power through high outputs. A TTL input 
not connected to anything will be assumed by most TTL cir- 
cuits, including the APMOD, to be in the high state. This also 
means that though an average TTL circuit can send twenty- 
five milliamps to ground in the low state, it cannot provide 
more than about ten milliamps at +5 volts in the high state. 
Later, we will discuss special TTL circuits designed to handle 
higher voltages and currents. 

Connecting to the APMOD. The upper pin-set is made to ac- 
cept a twenty-conductor card edge connector, with the pins on 
.010-inch centers. This connector is not readily available, but a 
forty-pin connector with the proper spacing is available at 
most Radio Shack stores as part number 276-1558. You can also 
get five feet of twenty-conductor ribbon cable to fit this con- 
nector as Radio Shack part number 278-0770. You can attach 
the ribbon cable to one half of this connector only, and then 
press only this half onto the APMOD; or you may insert two 
pieces of ribbon cable into the two halves of the connector and 
run them to different pieces of equipment. All you need to do 
to disconnect one unit and attach the other is turn the con- 
nector 180 degrees on the APMOD — which can be done while 
the computer is running. 




Photo 2. 



OCTOBER 1981 



sum 



131 



As delivered, the APMOD does not have a power output. 
There are only the two ground pins and the two unconnected 
pins. The AIM16 unit designed to connect to the APMOD has its 
own built-in +12- volt power supply, which is run to the two un- 
connected pins on the APMOD. When the APMOD is used with- 
out AIM16 devices, it is convenient to have a +5-volt power 
supply as well as a ground. 

Photo 2 shows a wire run from a +5- volt tie point on the 
APMOD to a hole joined to the two unconnected pins. With this 
wire in place, the two pins are supplied with +5 volts from the 
Apple's power supply. Shorting these +5- volt pins to the ground 
pins can short out the Apple's power supply. While I am as- 
sured by Apple's engineering department that this cannot 
harm the computer, it causes a frightening array of symp- 
toms — squealing power supplies, lost data, and TV black- 
outs — that will condition you pretty quickly to avoid future 
shorts ! 

Testing the APMOD. Unlike most Apple peripheral cards, 
the APMOD cannot be activated with a PR# or JN# command. 
To control the card, you must peek or poke to its address. The 
address of the APMOD card depends on the slot in which you 
insert it. An APMOD card in slot 0 has the address -16256. The 
address of an APMOD in any slot is given by: 

ADDRESS = (16 * the slot number) - 16256. 
For instance, the address of an APMOD in slot 3 is (16 * 3) - 
16256, or 16208. 

Poking a value into this address will send the various output 
lines high or low, depending on the binary digits of the number 
you poke. For instance, to set the output pins numbered 128, 32, 
and 8 high and the rest low, you poke address, 128 + 32 + 8. To 
set all output pins high, you poke address,255. To set all output 
pins low, you poke address.O. The eight input lines also appear 
as a binary number, which appears as peek (address). For in- 
stance, if peek(address) = 48, all the APMOD input pins ex- 
cept 32 and 16 are connected to ground. (48 is 32 + 16.) If all the 
pins are connected to ground, peek (address) will be 0. If all the 



pins are connected to +5 volts, or disconnected, peek(address) 
will be 255. 

The example program in listing 1, written in Applesoft 
Basic, can set any desired combination of outputs high or low 
and then display the state of all eight inputs. The routine at 1000 

10 DIM IN(8),OUT(8) 
20 TEXT : CALL - 936 
30 REM 

40 REM GET APMOD SLOT NUMBER 
40 REM 

60 PRINT "SLOT #"■,-. INPUT SLOT 

70 ADDRESS = (16 * SLOT) - 16256 

80 PRINT "ADDRESS - ",-ADDRESS 

90 REM 
100 REM PRINT NUMBERS 
110 REM 
120 X = 128 
130 VTAB 8 
140 FOR N = 1 TO 8 
150 PRINT X 
160 X = X / 2 
170 NEXT N 
180 PRINT "NUMBER" 
190 REM SET LEFT MARGIN TO 10 
200 REM THEN 
210 REM GET 8 OUTPUT VALUES 
220 REM 

230 POKE 32,10: POKE 33,30 

240 VTAB 6: PRINT "OUTPUT": PRINT 

250 FOR N = 1 TO 8 

260 INPUT A$ 

270 OUT(N) = 0 

280 IF A$ = "HIGH" THEN OUT(N) = 1 
290 NEXT N 
300 REM 

310 REM FORM OUTPUT NUMBER 
320 REM AND POKE IT INTO APMOD 
330 REM 

340 GOSUB 1000: PRINT NUMBER;" " 
350 POKE ADDRESS,NUMBER 



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OCTOBER 1981 



360 REM READ INPUT NUMBER 
370 REM AND DECODE IT 
380 NUMBER = PEEK (ADDRESS) 
390 COPY = NUMBER: GOSUB 2000 
400 REM 

410 REM DISPLAY INPUTS ON 
420 REM RIGHT SIDE OF SCREEN 
430 REM 

440 POKE 32,20: POKE 33,20 
450 VTAB 6 

460 PRINT "INPUT": PRINT 
470 FOR N = 1 TO 8 
480 A$ = "LOW" 

490 IF IN(N) = 1 THEN A$ = "HIGH" 
500 PRINT A$ 

510 NEXT N: PRINT COPY;" " 
520 GOTO 230 
1000 REM 

1010 REM ROUTINE TO PACK 8 
1020 REM OS OR IS INTO 1 NUMBER 
1030 REM 

1040 X = 128:NUMBER = 0 
1050 FOR N = 1 TO 8 

1060 IF OUT(N) = 1 THEN NUMBER = NUMBER + x 
1070 X = X / 2 
1080 NEXT N 
1090 RETURN 
2000 REM 

2010 REM ROUTINE TO DECODE 

2020 REM NUMBER INTO 8 OS OR IS 

2030 REM 

2040 X = 128 

2050 FOR N = 1 TO 8 

2060 IN(N) = (NUMBER > = X) 

2070 IF IN(N) THEN NUMBER = NUMBER - X 

2080 X = X / 2 

2090 NEXT N 

2100 RETURN 

Listing 1. General APMOD I/O driver program. 

converts the eight values of the array out into a single variable 
for poking to the slot address. The routine at 2000 converts the 
peek of that slot address into eight values in the array in. 

To use the program, first type in the slot number of the 
APMOD. Then type high or low at each of the eight prompts. 
When the APMOD output lines are set, you'll see a display of 
the state of the input lines. To quit the program, press ctrl-c and 
then type TEXT to return the prompt to the left side of the 
screen. 

Driving LEDs with the APMOD. One of the simplest tasks 
the APMOD can do is turn on or off a number of lights. Dia- 
gram 2 shows how to wire an output pin of the APMOD to a 
standard three to five volt light-emitting diode (LED). Wire 



APMOD is to drive a seven-segment LED display — for 
example, to display a number on a console remote from the 
Apple's screen. A common-anode LED display can be wired in 



Any 
APMOD 
output 




200-1000 -O- 

Diagram 2 
Wiring an LED 

the anode (short) lead of the LED to +5 volts and the cathode 
(long) lead to the output pin of the APMOD through a resistor 
of from 200 to 1000 ohms. The resistor is needed to prevent high 
currents from damaging the LED, and a higher resistance 
means a dimmer light. Eight LEDs can be connected in this 
way, one to each output pin. 

After wiring the lights, run the program in listing 1. Each 
light should turn on when the associated output pin is set low 
and go out when the pin is set high. Use the subroutines at 1000 
and 2000 in listing 1 to control the lights from your programs. 

Driving a Seven-Segment Display. A common task for the 




MAN72A 



+ 5 

O 



*All resistors identical, 
200-1000 . 



a 




anode 


b 








a 




c 
d 

a f 




b 


e 


9 




f 

e 

9 




c 


dp 






d 


□ 
dp 



Diagram 3 
Wiring a seven-segment display 

just the same fashion as separate LEDs. Diagram 3 shows the 
complete wiring for a common-anode LED display such as a 
MAN72A. The resistors can be any value from 200 to 1000 ohms 
but should be all the same value. 

The program in listing 2 drives the LED display to produce 
sixteen hexadecimal numbers in sequence. The data 

10 DIM NUM(16) 

20 TEXT : CALL - 936 

30 REM 

40 REM GET APMOD SLOT NUMBER 
50 REM 

60 PRINT "SLOT #";-. INPUT SLOT 
70 ADDRESS = (16 * SLOT) - 16256 
80 PRINT "ADDRESS - ",-ADDRESS 
90 REM 

100 REM PREPARE NUMBER TABLE 
110 REM 

120 FOR N = 0 TO 15 
130 READ NUM(N) 
140 NEXT N 
150 DATA 3,159,37,13 
160 DATA 153,73,65,31 
170 DATA 1,9,17,193 
180 DATA 99,133,97,113 
190 REM 

200 REM HEXADECIMAL DISPLAY 
210 REM 

220 FOR N = 0 TO 15 
230 POKE ADDRESS, NUM(N) 
240 REM 

250 REM DELAY LOOP 
260 REM 

270 FOR I = 1 TO 1000: NEXT I 
280 NEXT N 
290 GOTO 220 

Listing 2. Seven-segment numeric display program. 

statements 150 through 180 contain the numbers that are poked 
to the APMOD address to turn on the proper segments if the 
display segments are connected as in diagram 3. If you 
connect the display segments differently, you may have to 
change these numbers to get good-looking figures on your 
display. Or you may wish to design your own combination of 
seven segments, which can be converted into a number and 
displayed at your command. 

High-Voltage and High-Current Circuits. Never, never 
connect any voltage higher than +5 volts to the APMOD — not 
even +6 volts! And never, never connect the ground of the 
APMOD to any ground that might come in contact with house- 
hold voltages. Doing so may ruin your APMOD, your 
computer, and you. 




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134 M| S O E T A L \L October 1981 



To control high- voltage circuits from the APMOD, you can 
use a relay driven by five volts. A relay with a five-volt coil, 
capable of controlling three amps at 125 volts, is available 
from Radio Shack as part number 275-215. But this relay draws 
100 milliamps, or about four times the current the APMOD can 
safely deliver. 

To provide the high current, a buffer circuit must be used 
between the APMOD and the relay. The 7416 and 7417 circuits 
contain six buffers, each able to stand 40 milliamps. Connect- 
ing three of them in parallel, as in diagram 4, provides enough 
current capacity to operate the relay safely. If you wish, you 




14 13 12 11 10 9 8 

7416 or 7417 

0 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 



Any 
APMOD 
output 



*Wire relay contacts to circuit to be controlled 

Diagram 4 
Wiring a relay 

can use the other three buffers on the same chip to drive 
another relay. 

The difference between the 7416 and 7417 buffers is this : the 
7416 sends current to ground and operates the relay when the 
APMOD 's output pin goes high. But the 7417 operates the relay 
when the output goes low. Because of this, the 7416 is called an 
inverting buffer, and the 7417 is a noninverting buffer. Pick 
whichever you need for your particular application. 

Sensing Switches and Keyboards. So far we have only 
discussed output from the APMOD. The APMOD also has 
eight input lines that can be used to sense the positions of 
switches. Diagram 5 shows the simplest way to sense the clos- 
ing of a switch. Remember, TTL circuits like the APMOD as- 
sume that unconnected inputs are in the high state. Closing the 



Any 
APMOD 
input 



Switch open— HIGH 
Switch closed— LOW 



+ 5 



Any 
APMOD 
input 



1000 



Switch open — LOW 
Switch closed— HIGH 



Diagram 5 
Wiring switches to inputs 

switch in diagram 5(a) sets the APMOD input pin low. In 
diagram 5(b) the 1000-ohm resistor keeps the input pin low 
until the switch is closed; then +5-volt power forces the pin 
high. The logic state of each pin can be sensed by peeking the 
APMOD address and using the input routine at 2000 in listing 1. 

Since a keyboard is just a lot of switches, it would seem 
easy to connect a keyboard to the APMOD. But there are some 
problems. For one thing, there are only eight inputs to the 
APMOD, and a keyboard may have sixty- four or more 
switches on it. To sense sixty-four switches with the system of 



diagram 5 would require eight APMODs, filling up all the slots 
in the Apple! We can use only one APMOD by sensing only 
eight switches at a time but scanning through the switches fast 
enough to pick up even the briefest closure. 

Diagram 6 shows how a keyboard is scanned with a twelve- 
key numeric keyboard, available as Calectro part number E2- 
146. This keyboard has four row lines and three column lines. 



APMOD 
pins 



Row 1 



IN 



Row 2 



Row 3 



Row 4 



IN 1 I 



© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


0 


© 


© 



OUT 128 



DH4- 



Col 1 Col 2 



OUT 



OUT 



64 



:h«- 



Col 3 



32 



3H4- 



Diagram 6 
Wiring a scanned keyboard 

Pressing a key connects a row line to a column line. The row 
lines are connected to four APMOD input pins so that a key 
pressed on a grounded column line will send an input low. That 
tells us a key on one row is pressed, but not which key on that 
row. 

To tell us that, the column lines are connected to three of 
the APMOD 's output pins through 1N914 switching diodes. As 
long as an output is low, its diode passes current from the col- 
umn to ground. If a key is pressed in that column, the row line 
connected to the key will also go low. But when the output goes 
high, the diode blocks current, disconnecting the column line 
and any keys connected to it. 

The program in listing 3, written in Applesoft Basic, shows 
how the keyboard is scanned. Normally, all three column lines 
are grounded. When a key is pressed, one of the APMOD 
inputs goes low. The program then sequentially sets each of its 
outputs high. When the column with the pressed key is sent 
high, its signal disappears, telling the program what column 
the key is on. Which input line is grounded tells what row the 
key is on. The program then looks up the key name in the data 
statements and prints it. 

This principle can be expanded easily to cover eight column 

10 DIM IN(8),OUT(8) 
20 TEXT : CALL - 936 
30 REM 

40 REM GET APMOD SLOT NUMBER 
50 REM 

60 PRINT "SLOT #";: INPUT SLOT 
70 ADDRESS = (16 * SLOT) - 16256 
80 PRINT "ADDRESS - " ; ADDRESS 
90 REM 

100 REM SET ALL 3 LINES LOW 
110 REM 

120 POKE ADDRESS, 0 
130 REM 

140 REM WAIT FOR A KEYPRESS 
160 IF PEEK (ADDRESS) = 255 THEN 160 
• 170 RESULT = PEEK (ADDRESS) 
180 REM 

190 REM NOW SET ONE COLUMN 
200 REM AT A TIME HIGH AND 
210 REM SEE IF RESULT CHANGES 
220 REM 

230 X = 32:COLUMN = 0 
240 FOR N = 1 TO 3 

GOTO 142 



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BSR X— 10 is a trademark of BSR (USA) LTD. 
APPLE II is a trademark of APPLE COMPUTER, INC 



Beginners' 
Corner 




OCTOBER 1981 




m (raic sTinson 



When you run a program on your Apple, the computer does 
essentially three things. It takes input of some kind from you, 
processes the input according to your instructions, and then 
provides a form of output. The output may be to your televi- 
sion screen or monitor, to a printer, to a cassette tape or floppy 
disk, or to some other device, such as a modem or paper tape 
punch. Similarly, the input can be from various sources — 
tape, disk, modem, or whatever. This month's column will be 
devoted to the most commonly used input device for the 
Apple — its keyboard. 

The first time you saw an Apple you may have been struck 
by the fact that it looks a lot like an oddly shaped electric type- 
writer. Indeed the front end is most typewriterlike, with the 
same familiar layout of keys and numbers that we all came to 
know and love in the ninth grade or thereabout. 

On closer inspection, however, the Apple keyboard proves 
to have a few oddities like esc and ctrl, as well as the usual 
alphabetic and numeric (auf computerisch, that's alphanu- 
meric) keys. We will be talking presently about those oddball 
keys and what they do for the Apple, but first we should dis- 
cuss what happens when any key on the keyboard is pressed. 

The 6502 understands only zeros and ones. So what happens 
when you press the key marked Q? Naturally, the circuitry 
behind the keyboard translates Q — or any other keystroke — 
into a combination of zeros and ones. 

Toss a Coin. This array of zeros and ones gets stored as a 
byte of information in the Apple's random access memory. A 
byte, you may recall, is eight bits, and each bit is a switch that 
can be in either of two states, representing zero or one. 

If you have eight coins, each with a head and a tail, how 
many permutations of heads and tails can you arrange? 
Without going into mathematical theory, the easiest way to an- 
swer this question is to look first at a single coin. Obviously, 
one coin can be in either of two conditions — head up or tail up. 
Now add a second coin. For each of the two possible conditions 
of coin one, coin two may be showing either its head or its tail. 
So now we've got four unique arrangements — head-head, 
head-tail, tail-head, and tail-tail. 

If you add a third coin, you'll find you can come up with 
eight permutations. What you can see from this inductive 
analysis is that each time a new element is added to the array, 
the number of unique possibilities doubles. If you do the 
arithmetic for eight coins, you'll find that you can arrange 
them in 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 or 256 different ways. 

So it is with the eight bits in a byte. There are 256 different 
possibilities for arranging the zeros and ones of a byte. This 
fact has enabled computer scientists to develop systems for en- 
coding all the different letters, numbers, and punctuation that 
a person can enter at a computer keyboard. 

The code used by the Apple — and by many other computers 
as well — is called ASCII (pronounced askee), which stands for 
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. 



It may occur to you that 256 code possibilities is a little more 
than is needed to cover all the letters of the alphabet— both 
capital and lower case — as well as the numbers and punctu- 
ation. In fact, the Apple only uses seven bits for ASCII codes. 
The eighth bit has a different function: it tells the computer 
whether a key has been pressed. 

Does the Left Byte Know What the Right Byte's Doing? 
What? You mean the computer doesn't know if a key has been 
pressed? In a sense it does, and in a sense it doesn't. You could 
say that that particular byte of memory — the one that holds 
keypress information — "knows," because it is directly and im- 
mediately affected by the pressing of a key. But a program 
running on the Apple has to include an explicit instruction to 
look at that byte before it can act upon anything entered at the 
keyboard. If the last bit of the keypress byte is a one, the 
program knows that someone has hit a key, and it can act 
accordingly. The program's action of inspecting the byte then 
automatically resets that bit to zero, so if it looks at that byte 
again, a thousandth of a second or so later, it won't mistakenly 
think the same key has been pressed again. 

At any rate, the fact that only seven bits are used for ASCII 
values reduces the possible permutations by a factor of two, so 
now there are only 128 to contend with. 

Here's a little Applesoft program you can enter that shows 
how the ASCII code works. Get Applesoft up and running (so 
that you see the right-hand bracket prompt on your screen) 
and type the following, exactly: 
NEW 
10 HOME 
20 SPEED = 50 
30 MAX = 127 

40 FOR CODE = 0 TO MAX 

50 PRINT CODE, 

60 PRINT CHR$ (CODE) 

70 PRINT 

80 NEXT CODE 

90 SPEED = 255 

When you've got the program typed and you're satisfied 
that it matches our list exactly, type RUN and hit return. What 
you'll see is 128 numbers in one column (from zero to 127) and 
all the different characters that ASCII will encode in a second 
column. 

Several things may be puzzling at this point. Why does 
nothing show up in column two between 0 and 32? Why does the 
Apple beep when column one gets to 7? What have the 
numbers in column one got to do with all this, anyway? 

We'll deal with the last question first. We have quietly 
sidled up here to the subject of binary numbers. We will re- 
serve a proper treatment of binary numbers for a subsequent 
installment of this column; for now we'll just point out that the 
256 possible arrangements of eight bits can be used not only to 
encode any individual stroke at a computer keyboard, but also 
can represent all the numbers from 0 to 255. One particular 
pattern of zeros and ones can be assigned to be equivalent to 
145, another to 17, and so on. In fact there is a very logical, 




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orderly method of counting that will represent any positive 
whole number, using only the symbols 0 and 1. A number writ- 
ten in this fashion is called a binary number. 

So now we have two codes. Any unique pattern of the eight 
bits of a byte represents, via ASCII, a character, and, via the 
binary number system, some whole number between 0 and 
255. 

A Ghostly Alphabet. Now, what about all that blankness in 
column two while column one reels off the numbers 0 through 
32? Well, the ASCII equivalent for 32 is a space— what you get 
when you hit the spacebar— so that doesn't produce any visible 
output in this program. As for 0 through 31, those are called 
control characters, which brings us to the subject of the Ctrl 
key on the left side of the Apple keyboard. 

The control key — Ctrl stands for control — enables the Apple 
to produce characters in addition to the standard letters, 
numbers, and punctuation. It works much like the shift key on 
a typewriter. To get a capital letter on a typewriter, you hold 
down the shift key and hit the appropriate letter. To get a 
control character on the Apple, simply press the appropriate 
character while holding down the control key. The ASCII code 
includes thirty-two control characters. They are the twenty-six 
letters of the alphabet (each in conjunction with the control 
key) plus six others, which we'll discuss presently. 

So now the ASCII code structure can be conceptualized as 
having four thirty-two-character blocks. Positions 0 through 31 
in the code are for control characters. Places 32 through 63 
cover most of the punctuation symbols. The alphabetic char- 
acters (in upper case form) plus six additional symbols occupy 
positions 64 through 95; and from 96 through 127, something 
interesting happens. 

If you have an unmodified Apple— that is, if you've done 
nothing since you got your Apple to modify the way the 
keyboard works— then positions 96 through 127 duplicate 
positions 32 through 63. However, if you have installed a device 
known as a lower-case adapter in your Apple, then at positions 
96 through 127 you'll see the lower-case alphabet, plus six 
symbols. 

Lower-case adapters are a fairly popular and relatively 
inexpensive add-on for Apple users (see the article on page 
123). They're especially handy if you do a lot of word process- 
ing, although you do not have to have one to produce a printed 
document with upper and lower case letters. 

If you don't have a lower-case adapter, but you do have a 
printer hooked up to your Apple at this moment, add the 
following lines to the program: 
15 PR#1 
95 PR#0 

If you haven't done anything with your computer since the last 
time you ran the program, you can just enter those two lines; 
the rest of the program is still in memory, so you don't have to 
retype it. Turn on your printer now and run the program again 
with the two additional lines. 

By doing this, you'll see that even if you don't have a lower- 
case adapter and the original version of the program you typed 
in will not display lower-case letters, a printer will recognize 
them and print them. The Apple manuals are not abundantly 
clear on this point. Page 139 of the Applesoft Reference 
Manual, for example, indicates that ASCII 96 through 127 will 
generate characters that repeat those from 32 to 63. In fact this 
is true only if the characters in question are sent to the televi- 
sion screen or monitor; if they're sent to another output device, 
like a printer, they appear as their normal, robust, lower-case 
selves. 

Even if you do have a lower-case adapter, you've 
undoubtedly noticed that, unless you've run the software that 
came with your adapter or you're working within some kind of 
program that uses your Apple's lower-case capability, there's 
still no way you can type lower-case letters directly on the 
screen. If you've got the Applesoft prompt on your screen, for 
example, and you type the word PRINT, adapter or no 
adapter, whether you hold down the shift key or not, you're still 
going to get capital letters on your screen. The only way to get 



your screen to show a lower-case letter is by means of indirect 
statement, like PRINT CHR$(123), and that only works if you 
have the lower-case adapter. 

This brings us to the general question of how anything gets 
from the keyboard to the screen. 

Roadmap to the Screen. We've said that when you press a 
key on the Apple keyboard, a certain byte in the computer's 
memory stores certain information. The first seven bits dis- 
play the binary equivalent of the ASCII number that corre- 
sponds to the key pressed, and the last bit becomes one — mo- 
mentarily at least. 

Up to this point all that's happened is that the contents of a 
certain byte have changed. For a character to appear on your 
monitor, some kind of program has to look at that byte and 
take action that will result in the character's being displayed. 

You may be wondering how the devil you can ever type in a 
program and see the line numbers and instructions on the 
screen, since you have to have a program running in order to 
get anything displayed. The explanation is that Applesoft and 
Integer Basic are themselves programs. They're programs 
written in machine language and usually stored in read-only 
memory. When you see the right-hand bracket on your screen 
and a flashing cursor next to it, that means you are running a 
program called the Applesoft interpreter. One of the things this 
program will do is interrupt its customary activities to run a 
program of your devising, provided you encode the program in 
a way that meets certain syntactical requirements imposed by 
the Applesoft interpreter. In the meantime, until you start run- 
ning your own program, the interpreter will do certain other 
things, including displaying that familiar bracket and cursor 
and printing characters on the screen as you type them. 

It will, however, print no lower-case letters, even if you 
have an adapter. And this is the point: what appears on the 
screen is controlled by software, within the limits imposed by 
the hardware. It's perfectly possible to make a keypress of Q 
appear as X on the screen. It's not possible, however, to make 
it look like a frog, except by bypassing the Apple's character- 
generating hardware altogether and using its graphics capa- 
bility instead. This you can do, and in fact a number of word 
processing programs available for the Apple do take this ap- 
proach. When you press a key in these programs, the software 
actually draws a character in hi-res graphics. Programs of 
this kind can generate upper and lower case alphabets without 
requiring a lower-case adapter; they can also allow the user to 
design original type fonts. 

Since output to the television screen or monitor is con- 
trolled by software, it's meaningless to talk about what key on 
the keyboard produces what symbol on the screen, except 
within the context of a particular program. However, since you 
are likely to spend a good deal of time interacting with the 
Basic interpreter, we will discuss the way the keyboard func- 
tions in that context. 

Dealing with Two-Faced Keys. You'll notice that some of 
the keytops on your keyboard have two characters marked on 
them and some have one. Those with two behave just like keys 
on a typewriter; when you hold down one of the shift keys in 
the lower corners of the keyboard and hit a two-faced key, you 
get the character on top ; otherwise you get the one on the bot- 
tom. 

If you do a little experimenting, you'll find there are two ex- 
ceptions to what the previous paragraph said. If you hold down 
a shift key and hit G, you do not get the word BELL. Nor does 
anything ring inside your computer. You get a capital G. On 
the other hand, if you type a shifted M, you don't get any kind 
of M at all; you get that old familiar Applesoft prompt— the 
right-hand bracket. 

You should feel free, by the way, to type anything you want 
at your keyboard. Your Apple may occasionally beep and give 
you plaintive commentary, but you can ignore it. It's pretty set 
in its ways and doesn't understand that you're only fooling. 

Many of the characters that you can get only by holding 
down the shift key have special significance as part of pro- 
gram code in Applesoft or Integer Basic. We'll mention a cou- 



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son a i v 



OCTOBER 1981 



pie here. The asterisk, which is not your little footnote pointer 
sitting above a line of text, but rather a character of full weight 
and stature, is read by many programming languages as a 
symbol for multiplication. The computer needs some distinct 
symbol as a times sign, since it would ordinarily read X as a 
letter, not a mathematical operator. And the upward-pointing 
carat, achieved by hitting a shifted N, stands for exponentia- 
tion. The expression 3A2, in many programming languages, 
means three squared. 

Keys That Change Key. Now we'll consider the various spe- 
cial keys on the Apple keyboard. Reset we'll leave for last, 
since it's a most exceptional character. 

Rept is for repeat. Hold down any character and rept at the 
same time and that character will repeat. If you want to re- 
peat a shifted character or a control character, you need only 
hold down the shift key or control key for the first appearance 
of your character. After that you can let go of shift or control 
and just hold down the character key and rept, and you'll get 
all the repetition you desire. 

Return is much like the carriage return key on a type- 
writer. It terminates a line and restores the cursor to the left 
side of a new line. If you're in direct contact with the Basic in- 
terpreter — that is, if the current line on your screen starts with 
the Applesoft or Integer prompt — then hitting return tells the 
interpreter to regard everything between the prompt and the 
point where you hit return as a line of code in Basic. So if you 
type something like PRINT 4+21 and hit return, the computer 
will treat that as an instruction and will answer you accord- 
ingly. If you precede return with something that doesn't meet 
its exacting standards for Basic syntax, you'll get Basic's ver- 
sion of the Bronx cheer — a honk and an error message. (If 
you've started the line with a number, you can type any gob- 
bledygook you like before hitting return, and you won't get an 
error message until you happen to hit RUN and return on a line 
by itself). 

Moving along clockwise: the arrow keys do a little more 



than just move the cursor to the left or right. As you type in 
characters, besides displaying them on the screen, the Basic 
interpreter also loads them one by one into an area of memory 
called a buffer. This place is different from the byte that holds 
the current keypress. That location can only hold the most re- 
cently invoked character; the buffer will hold up to 255 char- 
acters. When you hit return, the interpreter empties the buffer 
and decides what to do about what you've said to it. 

If you type a line of characters and then hit left arrow a few 
times, the cursor will move back over your copy and, at the 
same time, the interpreter will remove characters from the 
buffer, one at a time. For example, if you type PRINTER, then 
left-arrow back over the E and R, then hit return, the interpre- 
ter will behave as though you had only typed PRINT. You'll 
notice that the E and R get erased from the screen when you 
hit return. 

If your cursor is at the left edge of the screen, next to the 
Basic prompt, and you hit left arrow, your cursor will drop to a 
new line and you'll get another Basic prompt. 

The right arrow key does the reverse. It reenters material 
into the buffer. If there's nothing on the screen to reenter, hit- 
ting right arrow will enter spaces into the buffer, just as though 
you were hitting the spacebar. If, in the example mentioned, 
you left-arrowed over the E and R and then hit right arrow 
twice before typing return, the last two characters would be re- 
stored to their place in the buffer, and the interpreter would re- 
spond accordingly — probably by displaying a zero (the reason 
why you get a zero has to do with the Basic language, not with 
the keyboard or the functioning of the arrow keys) . 

Those Shiftless Keys. The shift keys, as you've seen, work 
like their counterparts on a typewriter. You have to hold one of 
them down while you type the character to be shifted. The big 
difference between shift on the Apple and shift on a typewriter 
is that only certain of the Apple's keys can be shifted. 

If you type shift F, for example, you get the same charac- 
ter you would get by hitting F alone. In both cases — with or 
without shift — you would store the same value in the keypress 
byte. 

With all the alphabetic keys on the Apple keyboard except 
P, N, and M, the keyboard hardware simply does not notice or 
care whether you are holding down the shift key or not. Be- 
cause the hardware doesn't distinguish between, say, shift F 
and just F, you can't write software that will make that dis- 
tinction, either. Most word processing programs use some 
other key — like esc or the right arrow — as a shifter. 

Take Control of Your Apple. The control key works in many 
ways like the shift keys. You hold it down while pressing an- 
other key. Like the shift keys, control can affect only certain 
keys on the keyboard. One of the differences between control 
and shift is that, for the most part, control can affect only those 
keys that shift cannot. Shift-2, for example, gives you a double 
quote mark, but ctrl-2 gives you merely 2. The jurisdictions of 
shift and control overlap in only three places — P, N, and M. 

The other big difference between shift and control is that 
most control characters don't produce any visible output on the 
screen (at least not while you're in the Basic interpreter). 
Type control-A, for example. You see nothing. Hit return, how- 
ever, and you'll discover that the buffer has noticed your con- 
trol-A, even though the screen did not. 

The control characters are like ghosts — sensible by their ef- 
fects, not their fleshly form. When you're naming a program or 
other file for the purpose of saving it on disk, you can embed 
control characters in the middle of an otherwise visible name, 
and no one but you and the disk catalog will know they're 
there. Thereafter, if you want to recall the file from disk, you'll 
still have to type the same control characters in the same 
places or the disk operating system will not recognize the 
name. (There are probably exceptions to everything said in 
this column; it is possible to produce software that will seek 
out and reveal control characters in file names, so it's not quite 
true that only you and the catalog will know.) 

Certain control characters affect the positions of visible ma- 
terial on the screen. Ctrl-H and ctrl-U, for example, mimic the 




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OCTOBER 1981 SOPTALK S i 141 



left and right arrows, respectively, and hitting ctrl-M does the 
same thing as hitting return. Ctrl-J is unique in that it moves 
the cursor straight down; it produces what's called a line feed. 

Ctrl-C and ctrl-S are handy characters to know about when 
you're running programs coded in Basic. Ctrl-S will halt the 
output of a program. If you just want to stop something that's 
going by on the screen too fast for you to read, you can hit ctrl- 
S; hitting any other key will then cause the program to re- 
sume. (If you have an older Apple, without the autostart ROM, 
ctrl-S will not function this way). Ctrl-C will terminate most 
Basic programs. If you hit this program while a program is 
running, you'll get a beep and the report "break in" followed 
by the number of the last line the program executed. (If the 
program was waiting for input from you when you hit ctrl-C, 
you'll have to hit return as well to make the program stop.) 

Ctrl-X is the one exception to the rule that control charac- 
ters do not produce direct visible output. Ctrl-X gives you a 
backslash. More importantly, it erases the current line of in- 
put and moves the cursor to a new line. So if you should sud- 
denly look up at the screen and notice that you've had your 
hands in the wrong position on the keyboard and you've been 
typing gibberish, you can just erase the whole line with a ctrl- 
X. This will work both when you're talking directly to the Basic 
interpreter and when you're providing input to a Basic pro- 
gram you're running. 

Ctrl-G provides familiar audible output — a toot from the 
Apple speaker. That's why the G keytop says BELL and why 
when you ran that program that appeared many long-winded 
paragraphs ago, you got a beep when column one printed the 
number 7. 

Get Out of Jail Free. There's one more control character to 
consider, and that's the esc key. Esc— short for escape— 
doesn't look like a control character, since you don't have to 
hold down the control to get it— but its ASCII value is 27, so 
it's generally regarded as a control character. 

Escape has several useful functions, when followed im- 
mediately by certain other specific keystrokes. Try hitting es- 
cape and then A. Do it a few times and you'll see your cursor 
scoot across the screen to the right. This is not the same thing 
as hitting right arrow; escape- A is what's called a pure cursor 
move. It moves the cursor but does not put characters into the 
buffer the way right arrow does. 

Experiment with escape-B, escape-C, and escape-D. They're 
also pure cursor moves. Now try putting a lot of garbage on the 
screen. Just type anything at all; hit return occasionally and 
ignore the syntax error messages. Now get your cursor up into 
the middle of this clutter by hitting escape-D a few times. Now 
hit escape-E. The screen clears from the position of the cursor 



to the end of the current line. If you now hit escape-F, every- 
thing on the screen after the cursor will disappear. If you hit 
escape-shift-P (escape a£-sign), the entire screen will go blank 
and your cursor will appear at the upper left corner. Try put- 
ting some more garbage on the screen and typing HOME; 
HOME is an Applesoft Basic command that does approxi- 
mately the same thing as escape-shift-P, with one small dif- 
ference, as you will note. 

Escape-K, escape-J, escape-M, and escape-I are very 
handy characters. They do the same things as escape A-D, ex- 
cept that they allow you to move your cursor around without 
having to keep hitting the escape key. Once you hit escape with 
any of those four keys, you go into what's called the editing 
mode ; you can keep hitting I, J, K, and M then, and you'll keep 
moving the cursor. To get out of editing mode, once you have 
the cursor where you want it, just hit any other key. Notice that 
the four keys in question form a diamond on the keyboard; 
that'll help you remember what key moves in what direction. 

There are two control characters in the ASCII code — num- 
bers 28 and 31 — that are not available directly on the Apple 
keyboard. They're included in the ASCII code because other 
computing systems use them ; and in fact you can send them to 
or receive them from other computers over modems by means 
of Basic statements like PRINT CHR$(28), but there's no way 
to produce them by a simple two-stroke combination at the 
keyboard. It's all right, though; you won't miss them. 

l#(a yl !%#!?Reset! Now, as for reset . . . many people feel 
that Apple erred in the design of the keyboard: they put the 
reset key right next to return. 

Reset is not really a key in the same sense as any of the 
others. It's more like a kind of off-on switch that reboots the 
system. It actually does a lot of things, and you can read about 
it on page 36 of the Apple II Reference Manual. The long and 
short of it, though, is that you want to avoid hitting that devil 
unless your system is hung up and you can't find any other way 
out. 

Unfortunately, it's right up there next to return, ready and 
waiting for your outstretched little finger. Newer Apples have 
a feature that will prevent most accidental resets. If you re- 
move the top of the computer and look inside the machine, di- 
rectly in front of the crack between the 3 and 4 keys, you may 
see a little black lever protruding from the keyboard hard- 
ware. Slide this lever to the left, and the reset key won't work 
unless you're holding down control at the same time that you 
hit reset. 

The Apple III, by the way, has its reset key in an altogether 
different place, off the main body of the keyboard, out of reach 
of unguided digits. Hi 



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142 



ml 



WHTAI K 



OCTOBER 1981 



The Controller 



from page 1 34 - 



250 POKE ADDRESS,X 
260 X = X * 2 

270 IF PEEK (ADDRESS) > RESULT THEN COLUMN = N 
280 NEXT N 
290 REM 

300 REM GET ROW FROM RESULT 

310 REM 

320 ROW = 0 

330 IF RESULT = 251 THEN ROW = 1 
340 IF RESULT = 253 THEN ROW = 2 
350 IF RESULT = 254 THEN ROW = 3 
360 KEY = (3 * ROW) + COLUMN 
370 REM 

380 REM NOW FIND THE KEY NAME 

390 REM IN DATA STATEMENTS. 

400 REM 

410 RESTORE 

420 FOR N = 1 TO KEY 

430 READ A$ 

440 NEXT N 

450 PRINT A$ 

460 DATA "T',"2","3" 

470 DATA "4","5","6" 

480 DATA "7","8","9" 

490 DATA «*" ( "0","#" 

500 REM 

510 REM WAIT UNTIL THE KEY 
520 REM IS RELEASED, THEN 
530 REM START CHECKING AGAIN. 
540 REM 

550 POKE ADDRESS, 0 

560 IF PEEK (ADDRESS) < 255 THEN 560 

570 GOTO 120 

Listing 3. Keyboard input scanning program. 

lines and eight row lines, thus allowing you to sense sixty-four 
keys. Note, too, that the keys need not be physically arranged 
in rows and columns; in fact, so long as the proper connec- 
tions are made, they could be switches scattered about your 
house. Extensions of the technique in listing 3 will allow you to 
sense the position of any of the sixty-four switches individually. 

Opto- Isolators. So far we have discussed only circuits 
powered by the Apple's power supply. Never connect a circuit 
powered by an outside supply directly to the APMOD's inputs. 
To sense high currents or voltages, you could use relays 
powered by the outside circuit and sense their contacts in the 
way I have already described. However, a cheaper part called 
the opto-isolator is now available. Opto-isolators (also called 
optical isolators or opto-couplers) are very useful when you 
must pass a signal from one circuit to another without 
electrically connecting the two circuits. 

An opto-isolator is a relaylike device worked by a light 
beam instead of a magnetic field. Instead of a coil to generate 
magnetism, there is an LED to generate light. And instead of 
the contacts, there is a phototransistor— a transistor that 
conducts when the light from the LED shines on it. A very 
sensitive TIL-119 Darlington-type opto-isolator is available 
from Radio Shack as part number 276-133. 

Diagram 7(a) shows how to connect the opto-isolator to a 
DC voltage. The resistor in the supply voltage line allows only 
one milliamp through the LED. This resistor should be a 
thousand times the voltage on the output circuit; a five-volt 
input should pass through a 5000-ohm resistor; and a twenty- 
four-volt circuit should have a 24K resistor. The value is not 
critical; anything from half to twice the value will pass suffi- 
cient current without destroying the opto-isolator. These 
values are for Radio Shack's opto-isolator; other devices may 
need more current and less resistance. But the pin layout of 
most opto-isolators is the same as in diagram 7. 

Never feed negative voltage into the positive input of an 
opto-isolator. The LED in the opto-isolator cannot take more 
than about three volts backward. This means the circuit of dia- 



voltage + Q vW^- 

to be 

sensed — Q 




a. D C voltage: 
*1000 see text 



1 



voltage 



voltage Q- 
to be 



sensed Q 




Any 
APMOD 
input 

<~3 



b. A C voltage 

*see text 

Diagram 7 
Wiring Opto-isolators to inputs 

gram 7(a) cannot be used to sense AC circuits. For AC, a 
diode must be added to block reverse current, as in diagram 
7(b) . This circuit also adds a capacitor with sufficient capacity 
to keep the LED lit while the current is reversed. 

The values of the resistor and capacitor depend on the 
frequency and voltage of the AC current. The formulas below 
should work for fifty to sixty Hz current with the opto-isolator 
shown. The exact values are not critical; from twice the 
calculated value to half the calculated value can be used. 
The formulas are: for C in microfarads, R in ohms, and V in 
volts : 

R = 1000 x V C = 50 / V 

For instance, for a 100- volt AC circuit, a resistance of 
100,000 ohms and a capacitance of 0.5 microfarads can be used. 
Actually, the resistor can be anywhere from 50,000 to 200,000 
ohms and the capacitor anywhere from 0.25 to 1 microfarad. 
Higher resistance and capacitance values will take longer to 
register changes in the state of the input circuit. 

More Applications. A computer is by nature a general- 
purpose tool. Although designed for a specific purpose, the 
APMOD is also a general-purpose interface. Other ideas for 
the APMOD, not discussed in this article, are: 

An intelligent logic test bench. With appropriate software, 
feed any desired combination of eight logic patterns, timed any 
way you like, from the APMOD to test equipment and show the 
results from up to eight test points as waveforms on the screen. 

A turtle robot controlled by buffers and driven by the 
Apple's twelve-volt power supply. The APMOD's output lines 
would control the motors, and the input lines would sense 
bumper switches located around the perimeter of the robot. 

A digital-to-analog converter, to be used as a sound 
generator. By connecting a resistor network to the APMOD's 
output pins, try to produce high-quality sounds by generating 
smoothly varying voltages which can then be ampli- 
fied. 

Where to Get The Parts. The APMOD card is available 
for $59.95 from Connecticut Microcomputer, 34 Delmar 
Drive, Brookfield, CT 06804. From Jameco Electronics, 
1355 Shoreway Road, Belmont, CA 94002, you can get: 7416 
TTL buffer circuit, $1.19; 7417 TTL buffer circuit, $1.19; 1N914 
diodes, package of ten, $.99. From GC Electronics, 400 South 
Wyman Street, Rockford, IL 61101, twelve-key row column 
keyset, part number E2-146, $10.65. The following parts are 
available at most Radio Shack stores: Forty- pin edge connec- 
tor, part number 276-1558, $5.95; five-foot twenty-wire cable, 
part number 2780770, $3.95; five-volt DIP relay, part number 
275-215, $4.49; opto-isolator, part number 276-133, $1.99. HI 




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You live in a small town in the 14th century. You were 
awakened this morning by a terrible pain in your arm. Upon ex- 
amining your arm, you find a bloody gash in it. Wisely you cover 
it so that nobody will see it. Later, you find that the townspeople 
had seen a werewolf last night and one person had shot an ar- 
row at it, but evidently he had missed, because the werewolf 
continued running. You instantly deduce that you must have 
been the werewolf and realize that you must find an antidote. 

You decide to go to a nearby dungeon that is deserted. 
Legend says that a powerful Wizard, Evro, once lived there, but 
he became a victim of his own experiments. The rumor is that he 
had strange and deadly creatures under his power. You decide 



that you might be able to find some sort of recipe for a potion to 
cure your affliction. 

Unfortunately, it is right around the time of the full moon, 
and you know that you will almost certainly become a werewolf 
tonight again. In fact, the moon rises tonight at exactly mid- 
night, which has always had a mystical aura about it. You arm 
yourself with a fine sword and a full lantern and set off in search 
of the dungeon. After finding the ruins which used to be Evro's 
castle you look for some sort of entrance, such as a stairway. 

While searching, the ground suddenly gives way under you. 
Breathing heavily, and trembling with fear. . 
PRESS (RETURN) TO CONTINUE 



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OCTOBER 1981 



gum v 



145 



Softalk Presents 
The Bestsellers 

Sof talk's bestseller list takes on both a new look and an old 
look on its first anniversary. 

The new look, of course, is the expanded breakout of 
various categories to show Apple owners with special interest 
what is hot in their areas. 

The old look has to do with the leader of the pack. VisiCalc 
was the first program to head the Top Thirty list and for 
months it appeared that Personal Software's electronic calcu- 
lator had taken permanent possession of that lofty position. 
But from Christmas season of 1980, hot new entertainment 



Strategy 5 

1. Robot War, Silas Warner, Muse 

2. Flight Simulator, Bruce Artwick, SubLogic 

3. Computer Baseball, Charles Merrow and Jack T. Avery, Strategic 
Simulations 

4. Sargon II, Dan and Kathe Spracklen, Hayden 

5. Warp Factor, Paul Murray, Strategic Simulations 



Adventure 5 

1. Hi-Res Adventure #3: Cranston Manor, Harold DeWitz and Ken Wil- 
liams, On-Line Systems 

2. Hi-Res Adventure #2: The Wizard and the Princess, Roberta and 
Ken Williams, On-Line Systems 

3. Oo Topos: An Extraterrestrial Adventure, Michael Berlyn, Senti- 
ent Software 

4. Zork, Mark S. Blank, Timothy Anderson, Bruce Daniels, P.D. 
Leblins, Scott Cutler, and Joel Berez/Infocom, Personal Software 

5. Softporn, Chuck Benton/Blue Sky Software, On-Line Systems 



Fantasy 5 

1. Ultima, Lord British, California Pacific 

2. Kaves of Karkhan, Rodney Nelsen, Level-10 

3. Dragon Fire, Rodney Nelsen, Level-10 

4. Dragon's Eye, Robert Leyland, Automated Simulations 

5. Crush, Crumble and Chomp, Automated Simulations 



product has consistently pushed VisiCalc from first to a con- 
tending position. But this anniversary, VisiCalc returned to the 
top with a vengeance, swamping its gaming competitors. 

It's more than a little ironic that the program that first 
nudged VisiCalc from the top spot, Apple Galaxian— now 
known as Alien Rain— slipped from the Top Thirty this month 
for the first time since it bested VisiCalc. 

Raster Blaster, after reigning in the top spot for three 
months, dropped all the way to fourth. While last month's run- 
ner-up, Gorgon, maintained its position, Cranston Manor 
proved its heritage as an On-Line offspring by joining VisiCalc 
and Gorgon ahead of the fallen monarch. 



Personal Software's CCA Data Management System re- 
gained a spot in the Business 10 after an absence of two 
months, even as Personal announced that it would be discon- 



Business 10 

1. VisiCalc, Software Arts/Dan Bricklin and Robert Frankston, Per- 
sonal Software 

2. DB Master, Alpine Software/Stanley Crane and Jerry Macon; and 
Barney Stone, Stoneware 

3. VisiTrend/VisiPlot, Micro Finance Systems/Mitch Kapor, Per- 
sonal Software 

4. VisiDex, Peter Jennings, Personal Software 

5. Personal Filing System, John Page, Software Publishing Corpora- 
tion 

6. PFS: Report, John Page, Software Publishing Corporation 

7. Apple Plot, Apple Computer 

8. CCA Data Management System, Creative Computer Applications, 
Personal Software 

9. Data Reporter, Synergistic Software 
10. Payroll, BPI, Apple Computer 



tinuing the program in favor of new data base management 
system. 

As to the new breakouts, they still cause some problems in 
categorizing software. Some of the divisions were fairly clear, 
but the software doesn't necessarily want to fit the niches 
defined. 



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OCTOBER 1981 



SOCTAI V 



147 



As an example, it seemed natural to break out the 
Home/Hobby 10 into a Home section and a Hobby section, with 
the hobbyist being considered a person who does program- 
ming. But do Sensible Software's utilities fall into that cate- 
gory or into the general home use category? Likewise, are 
Graphtrix and Hand Holding Basic the tools of hard-core hob- 
byists or arc they more home-oriented? 

As with Sof talk's original breakouts, the divisions were 



Many home users buy Apple Writer, but few buy a $500 gen- 
eral ledger accounting package. 

The three new game categories recognize subsets of enter- 



Hobby 10 



Home 10 



1. Typing Tutor, Image Producers, Microsoft 

2. Graphtrix, Steven Boker, Data Transforms 

3. Home Money Minder, Bob Schoenburg and Steve Pollack, Contin- 
ental Software 

4. Personal Finance Manager, Apple Computer 

5. VisiTerm, Tom Keith, Personal Software 

ASCII Express, Bill Blue, Southwestern Data Systems 

7. Hand Holding Basic, Apple Computer 

8. Dow Jones Series Portfolio Evaluator, Apple Computer 

9. Dow Jones News & Quotes Reporter, Apple Computer 

10. Financial Management System II, D. R. Jarvis, D. R. Jarvis Com- 
puting 



made arbitrarily and are susceptible to knowledgeable sec- 
ond-guessing by one and all. 

Breaking the word processors out from Business packages 
recognizes the broader market served by the text handlers. 



1. DOS 3.3, Apple Computer 

2. The Complete Graphics System, Mark Pelczarski, Penguin Soft- 
ware 

3. Expediter II, Stewart Einstein and Dennis Goodrow, On-Line 
Systems 

4. DOS Tool Kit, Apple Computer 

5. Super Disk Copy III, Charles Hartley, Sensible Software 

6. Multi-Disk Catalog, Roger Tuttleman, Sensible Software 

7. Bill Budge's 3-D Graphics Package, Bill Budge, California Pacific 

8. LISA Assembler, Randy Hyde, On-Line Systems 

9. Higher Text II, Synergistic Software 

10. Applesoft Compiler, Jonathan Eiten, Hayden 



Word Processors 5 

1. Apple Writer, Apple Computer 

2. Word Star, Micro Pro 

3. Super Text, Ed Zaron, Muse Software 

4. Magic Window, Gary Shannon and Bill Depew, Artsci 

5. Easy Writer, John Draper, Information Unlimited Software 



IF THIS IS 




VOU'RC BARKING UP TH€ WRONG TR€€. 




Animated 
play that 
es ot the 



COMPUTER 



But if it reminds you of football — specifically, a fancy play 
action pass against an outside linebacker blitz — go to the head 
of the pack And as long as you're on the right 
track you might as well consider COMPUTER 
QUARTERBACK™ , the most realistic simulation of pro 
football made for the Apple* by SSL* 




It's got everything to make the illusion complete, 
video display of the gridiron and scoreboard. Real-time 
accounts for penalties, interceptions, and fumbles. Audib! 
line of scrimmage. As many as 56 of- 
fensive plays Up to 24 defensive cover- 
ages and blitzes (dogs), plus double- 
teaming capabilities and special align- 
ments. Even halftime and end- of- game 
statistics! 

Best of all, there's $3 million provided 
so you can draft your very own teaml 
Or if you want pre-made teams, our NFL 
Teams Data Disks (available separately) 
give you exactly that** 

UJhether you're playing against a 
friend or against the computer, this new, 
improved edition of COMPUTER QUARTER- 
BACK lets you play with teams designed 
to fit your style and specifications! 

So check out this fantastic strategy 
football game at your local store today! 

VISA and MASTERCARD holders can order this $39.95 gome by calling 
800-227-1617, ext 335 (toll free). In California call 800-772-3545. ext 335. 

To order by moil, send your check to: Strategic Simulations 
Inc, 465 foirchild Dr.. Suite 108, Mountain View, CA 94043. 
All our games carry a 14-day money-back guarantee. 

**1980 Teams Data Disk now available for $15.00. 




■ 



*48K Disc for Apple II with ROM Cord or Apple II Aus. 




tainment software, members of which all too often hover just 
under the Top Thirty mark and seldom receive their due rec- 
ognition. 

Even here, arbitrary definitions were needed. Arcade 
games are not broken out separately because so many enjoy 
high places on the Top Thirty already. Arcade games are 
defined as games where hand-eye coordination and dextrous 
manipulation of the Apple keyboard or game controllers are 
the keys to success. 

By this definition, Pool 1.5 and Olympic Decathlon got 
thrown in with the arcade games. 

Strategy games are defined as adversary games — person 
against person or person against computer — where a success- 
ful result would more likely occur from mental prowess than 
from physical dexterity. 



Apple-franchised retail stores representing approximately 4.9 percent of 
all sales of Apples and Apple-related products volunteered to participate in 
the poll. 

Respondents wee contacted early in September to ascertain their sales 
leaders for the month of August. 

The only criterion for inclusion on the list was number of sales made — 
such other criteria as quality of product, profitability to the computer retail- 
er, and personal preference of the individual respondents were not consid- 
ered. 

Respondents in September represented every geographical area of the 
continental United States as well as Hawaii. 

Results of the responses were tabulated using a formula that resulted in 
the index number to the left of the program name in the Top Thirty listing. 
The index number is an arbitrary measure of relative strength of the pro- 
grams listed. Index numbers are correlative only for the month in which they 
are printed; readers cannot assume that an index rating of 50 in one month 
represents equivalent sales to an index number of 50 in another month. 

Probability of statistical error is plus-or-minus 8.1 percent, which trans- 
lates roughly into the theoretical possibility of a change of five points, plus or 
minus, in any index number. 




H 



Color High Resolution Graphics 
Largest Number Of Game Options 



>- PL, 
CO f— 



STAR THIEF 

The Newest Release From (EaUaltW (KOttlJIUtEr 
Caiialter (EumpUter Exclusively distributed by 



P.O. Box 2032 
Del Mar, CA 92014 
(714) 755-5392 



4079 Glencoe Ave. 
Marina del Rey.CA 90291 
(800) 421 0980 in CA (213) 822-8933 



Adventure games are considered those in which success re- 
quires solving several riddles or puzzles as you work your way 
through the program. 

Fantasy games are those in which you create one or more 
characters with whom you identify as the game progresses. 

Four new programs made the Top Thirty in August. They 
were Sneakers and Epoch from Sirius Software, Star Thief 
from Cavalier Software, and Graphtrix from Data Trans- 
forms. Three packages rejoined the Top Thirty after a month 
off. They were Apple Writer, Olympic Decathlon, and Sargon 
II. 

Sneakers, which leapt from nowhere to number 9 on the list 
without being available the entire month of August, was ex- 
pected to become a one-of-a-kind collectors item even before it 
hit the market. Its author, a medical student, designed 
Sneakers for fun and had no intention of ever writing another 
commercial program. But an Apple a day seems indeed capa- 
ble of keeping the doctor away; and another Turmell program 
is on the way. 

Business in August was slightly up, portending an increase 
from now through the Christmas season. Sales of individual ti- 
tles were impacted, however, by the stiffer competition now 
evident in the Apple market. 



The Top Thirty 



VisiCalc, Software Arts/Dan Bricklin and Robert 
Frankston, Personal Software 
Gorgon, Nasir, Sirius Software 
Hi-Res Adventure #3: Cranston Manor, Harold De- 
Witz and Ken Williams, On-Line Systems 
Raster Blaster, Bill Budge, BudgeCo. 
Apple Panic, Ben Serki, Broderbund Software 
DB Master, Alpine Software/Stanley Crane and Jer- 
ry Macon; and Barney Stone, Stoneware 
Snoggle, Jun Wada, Broderbund Software 
Ultima, Lord British, California Pacific 
Sneakers, Mark Turmell, Sirius Software 
Robot War, Silas Warner, Muse Software 
Pool 1.5, Don Hoffman, Howard de St. Germaine, 
and Dave Morock, Innovative Design Software 
Space Eggs, Nasir, Sirius Software 
VisiTrend/VisiPlot, Micro Finance Systems/Mitch 
Kapor, Personal Software 
Flight Simulator, Bruce Artwick, SubLogic 
Gobbler, Olaf Lubeck, On-Line Systems 
Apple Writer, Apple Computer 
VisiDex, Peter Jennings, Personal Software 
DOS 3.3, Apple Computer 

Personal Filing System, John Page, Software Pub- 
lishing Corporation 

Star Thief, Jim Nitchals, Cavalier Computing 
Olympic Decathlon, Tim Smith, Microsoft 
Hi-Res Adventure #2: The Wizard and the Princess, 
Roberta and Ken Williams, On-Line Systems 
Typing Tutor, Image Producers, Microsoft 
Graphtrix, Steve Boker, Data Transforms 
Computer Baseball, Charles Merrow and Jack T. 
Avery, Strategic Simulations 

The Complete Graphics System, Mark Pelczarski, 
Penguin Software 

Sargon II, Dan and Kathe Spracklen, Hayden 
Space Warrior, Marc Goodman, Broderbund Soft- 
ware 

Epoch, Larry Miller, Sirius Software 
Expediter II, Stewart Einstein and Dennis Good- 
row, On-Line Systems 



This 


Last 




Month Month Index 


1. 


3. 


92.96 


2. 


2. 


70.08 


3. 


9. 


56.94 


4. 


1. 


56.46 


5. 


7. 


55.00 


6. 


11. 


40.88 


7. 


9. 


36.02 


8. 


8. 


33.10 


9. 




32.61 


10. 


6. 


30.66 


11. 


4. 


30.18 


12. 


12. 


26.28 


13. 


14. 


25.80 


14. 


16. 


23.85 


15. 


17. 


23.36 


16. 




22.87 


17. 


17. 


22.39 


18. 


12. 


19.47 


19. 


24. 


18.98 


20. 




17.03 


21. 




16.55 


22. 


15. 


16.06 


23. 


26. 


13.63 


24. 




13.14 




22. 


13.14 




27. 


13.14 


27. 




12.65 




26. 


12.65 


29. 




11.68 




5. 


11.68 



TWO CLASSIC BATTLES WITH A 



5 



THE BATTLE OF SHILOH: A brigade-level simulation of the first grand battle of the Civil War, 
pitting the Confederate Army against Grant's troops and Union gunboats. 




TIGERS IN THE SNOW: Ghostlike Nazi Tiger tanks and infantry sweep across the dark 
frozen forests of the Ardennes against a surprised U.S. force in this division/regiment-level 
simulation of Hitler's last desperate attack 



As part of our demanding standards of excellence, we use maxell floppy di scs. 

Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc 



FRESH , NEW, 
COLORFUL 
APPROACH 
— THE SSI 
/Idr'l^liOAG'H » - 

When we set out to design 
games based on the Battle of Shiloh 
and the Battle of the Bulge, we 
knew we had to give these classic, 
favorite themes a fresh, new look 
and feel. After all, we've established 
a reputation in strategy gaming for 
unsurpassed innovation, excitement 
and sophistication. 

First we put the games on the 
Apple® II* programming it perfectly 
to eliminate all organizational and 
administrative headaches so you can 
give your undivided attention to 
strategy planning. 

Then we gave both games the 
realism and payability you're looking 
for. An elegant yet easy-to-use move- 
ment system for unimpeded play. 
Historical detail and accuracy for rich- 
ness and color. Hi- Res graphics that 
add even more color. Great solitaire 
scenarios against the computer. 
Zones of control. A step-reduction 
combat system. And more. 

Finally, we threw in features 
you wouldn't expect For example, 
TIGERS IN THE SNOW has artillery 
and airpower allocations along with 
fuel and supply limitations. THE 
BATTLE OF SHILOH allows you to 
fine-tune combat strengths for each 
side, providing for the ultimate in 
play balance. It even lets you select 
risk levels and ferocity of attack (or 
defense). 

For $39.95 each, these are, 
extraordinary games at quite an 
ordinary price. So head on down to 
your local store and check them out 
today! 

VISA and M/C holders can order by 
calling 800-227-1617, ext 335 (toll free). 
In California, call 800-772-3545, ext 335. 

To order by mail, send your check to: 
Strategic Simulations Inc. 465 Fairchild Dr., 
Suite 108. Mountain View, CA 94043. 

All our games carry a 14-day money- 
back guarantee. 

*48K disc for Apple® II with ROM Card or 
Apple® II Plus.